How to format your references using the International Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
O. Morton, PARTICLE PHYSICS: CERN Gives Higgs Hunters Extra Month to Collect Data, Science. 289 (2000) 2014–2015.
A journal article with 2 authors
C.B. Green, M. Menaker, Circadian rhythms. Clocks on the brain, Science. 301 (2003) 319–320.
A journal article with 3 authors
N. Sambanis, J. Schulhofer-Wohl, M. Shayo, Social psychology. Parochialism as a central challenge in counterinsurgency, Science. 336 (2012) 805–808.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
R.P. Schwarzenbach, B.I. Escher, K. Fenner, T.B. Hofstetter, C.A. Johnson, U. von Gunten, B. Wehrli, The challenge of micropollutants in aquatic systems, Science. 313 (2006) 1072–1077.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
U. Lundberg, C.L. Cooper, The Science of Occupational Health, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK, 2010.
An edited book
A. Klieman, ed., Great Powers and Geopolitics: International Affairs in a Rebalancing World, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
P.K. Nag, P. Dutta, V. Chorsiya, A. Nag, GIS Visualization of Climate Change and Prediction of Human Responses, in: T. Islam, P.K. Srivastava, M. Gupta, X. Zhu, S. Mukherjee (Eds.), Computational Intelligence Techniques in Earth and Environmental Sciences, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 2014: pp. 93–105.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture.

Blog post
J. Fang, 101 Butterfly Genomes Explain Monarch Migration Prowess, IFLScience. (2014). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Opportunities and Constraints for Expanding Use of Research Facilities at the National Bureau of Standards, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1985.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
A.B. Wenzel, Learning the culture of teaching: A middle school perspective, Doctoral dissertation, Indiana University, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
K. Braffet, Wonder Women in Manhattan, New York Times. (2016) BR12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture
AbbreviationInt. J. Mach. Tools Manuf.
ISSN (print)0890-6955
ScopeIndustrial and Manufacturing Engineering
Mechanical Engineering

Other styles