How to format your references using the International Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
M. Sincell, MOLECULAR STRUCTURE: Physicists Glimpse How Quasicrystals Boogie, Science. 289 (2000) 1451.
A journal article with 2 authors
M.R. Junttila, F.J. de Sauvage, Influence of tumour micro-environment heterogeneity on therapeutic response, Nature. 501 (2013) 346–354.
A journal article with 3 authors
S. Hata, H. Nakao, A.S. Mikhailov, Dispersal-induced destabilization of metapopulations and oscillatory Turing patterns in ecological networks, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 3585.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
J. Herbig, T. Kraemer, M. Mark, T. Weber, C. Chin, H.-C. Nägerl, R. Grimm, Preparation of a pure molecular quantum gas, Science. 301 (2003) 1510–1513.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
M. Stamp, Information Security, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2011.
An edited book
W. Kirk, Fixed Point Theory in Distance Spaces, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
J. Hyysalo, J. Lehto, S. Aaramaa, M. Kelanti, Supporting Cognitive Work in Software Development Workflows, in: J. Heidrich, M. Oivo, A. Jedlitschka, M.T. Baldassarre (Eds.), Product-Focused Software Process Improvement: 14th International Conference, PROFES 2013, Paphos, Cyprus, June 12-14, 2013. Proceedings, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2013: pp. 20–34.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture.

Blog post
R. Andrews, New Blood Test Helps Doctors Choose Accurate Treatment For Depression, IFLScience. (2016). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Guaranteed Student Loans: Guidelines for Reducing Guaranty Agency Reserves, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1986.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
L. Hintz, Fighting for Us, Inside and Out: National Identity Contestation and Foreign Policy in Turkey, Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University, 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
J. Hodgman, Bonus Advice From Judge John Hodgman, New York Times. (2017) MM26.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture
AbbreviationInt. J. Mach. Tools Manuf.
ISSN (print)0890-6955
ScopeIndustrial and Manufacturing Engineering
Mechanical Engineering

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