How to format your references using the International Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
D. Charlesworth, Evolution. Competitive centromeres, Science. 322 (2008) 1484–1485.
A journal article with 2 authors
G. Li, J. Zhang, Ultra-broadband and efficient surface plasmon polariton launching through metallic nanoslits of subwavelength period, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 5914.
A journal article with 3 authors
N.L. Golding, N.P. Staff, N. Spruston, Dendritic spikes as a mechanism for cooperative long-term potentiation, Nature. 418 (2002) 326–331.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
E.A. Helder, J. Vink, C.G. Bassa, A. Bamba, J.A.M. Bleeker, S. Funk, P. Ghavamian, K.J. van der Heyden, F. Verbunt, R. Yamazaki, Measuring the cosmic-ray acceleration efficiency of a supernova remnant, Science. 325 (2009) 719–722.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
M. Cherniakov, An Introduction to Parametric Digital Filters and Oscillators, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2003.
An edited book
C. Ghate, K.M. Kletzer, eds., Monetary Policy in India: A Modern Macroeconomic Perspective, Springer India, New Delhi, 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
D. Andersson, V. Gurvich, T.D. Hansen, On Acyclicity of Games with Cycles, in: A.V. Goldberg, Y. Zhou (Eds.), Algorithmic Aspects in Information and Management: 5th International Conference, AAIM 2009, San Francisco, CA, USA, June 15-17, 2009. Proceedings, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2009: pp. 15–28.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture.

Blog post
E. Andrew, Discovered: Stone Tools That Go Back Beyond Earliest Humans, IFLScience. (2015). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Diffusing Innovations: Implementing the Technology Transfer Act of 1986, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1991.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
A.T. Pham, Factorization of polynomials modulo a prime, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
G. Vecsey, The Place Is Rocking, and So Are the Knicks, New York Times. (2010) B17.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture
AbbreviationInt. J. Mach. Tools Manuf.
ISSN (print)0890-6955
ScopeIndustrial and Manufacturing Engineering
Mechanical Engineering

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