How to format your references using the International Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
D. Sarewitz, The dubious benefits of broader impact, Nature. 475 (2011) 141.
A journal article with 2 authors
B. Blasius, L. Stone, Ecology. Nonlinearity and the Moran effect, Nature. 406 (2000) 846–847.
A journal article with 3 authors
E.G. Nisbet, E.J. Dlugokencky, P. Bousquet, Atmospheric science. Methane on the rise--again, Science. 343 (2014) 493–495.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Y.M. Sabri, S.J. Ippolito, J. Tardio, V. Bansal, A.P. O’Mullane, S.K. Bhargava, Gold nanospikes based microsensor as a highly accurate mercury emission monitoring system, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 6741.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Z. Rezaee, Financial Services Firms, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2011.
An edited book
G.P. Moss, Predictive Methods in Percutaneous Absorption, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
M. Holzer, M. Kutrib, Cellular Automata and the Quest for Nontrivial Artificial Self-Reproduction, in: M. Gheorghe, T. Hinze, G. Păun, G. Rozenberg, A. Salomaa (Eds.), Membrane Computing: 11th International Conference, CMC 2010, Jena, Germany, August 24-27, 2010. Revised Selected Papers, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2011: pp. 19–36.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture.

Blog post
J. Fang, Early Cretaceous Bloodsucking Bugs Found in China, IFLScience. (2014). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Year 2000 Computing Crisis: Strong Leadership and Partnerships Needed to Mitigate Risk of Major Disruptions, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1998.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
E. Guiltinan, Characterizing well connectivity in fractured bedrock using periodic hydraulic tests, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
G. Vecsey, The Know-Nothing Mets? There’s a Pattern Here, New York Times. (2011) D4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture
AbbreviationInt. J. Mach. Tools Manuf.
ISSN (print)0890-6955
ScopeIndustrial and Manufacturing Engineering
Mechanical Engineering

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