How to format your references using the International Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
G.R. Desiraju, In search of clarity, Nature. 423 (2003) 485.
A journal article with 2 authors
T. O’Leary, E. Marder, Neuroscience. Mapping neural activation onto behavior in an entire animal, Science. 344 (2014) 372–373.
A journal article with 3 authors
A. Llopart, S. Elwyn, J.A. Coyne, Pigmentation and mate choice in Drosophila, Nature. 419 (2002) 360; discussion 360.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
M. Capone, M. Fabrizio, C. Castellani, E. Tosatti, Strongly correlated superconductivity, Science. 296 (2002) 2364–2366.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
A. Benchaib, Advanced Control of AC/DC Power Networks, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2015.
An edited book
G.H. Enders, ed., Cell Cycle Deregulation in Cancer, Springer, New York, NY, 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
Ł. Krzyżowski, Structuring Social Remittances: Transnational Networks of Polish Migrants, in: M. Nowicka, V. Šerbedžija (Eds.), Migration and Social Remittances in a Global Europe, Palgrave Macmillan UK, London, 2016: pp. 71–93.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture.

Blog post
S. Luntz, Is There A Man On The Moon?, IFLScience. (2014). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, ADP Modernization: IRS’ Tax System Redesign Progress and Plans for the Future, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1988.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
A.E. Amos, Perceptions of the persistent: Academic experiences of first generation community college students, Doctoral dissertation, Capella University, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
S. Kishkovsky, Restructuring At the Bolshoi Costs Director His Position, New York Times. (2000) E1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture
AbbreviationInt. J. Mach. Tools Manuf.
ISSN (print)0890-6955
ScopeIndustrial and Manufacturing Engineering
Mechanical Engineering

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