How to format your references using the International Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
J. Emsley, Good news is no news, Nature. 413 (2001) 113.
A journal article with 2 authors
B. Bond-Lamberty, A. Thomson, Temperature-associated increases in the global soil respiration record, Nature. 464 (2010) 579–582.
A journal article with 3 authors
N. Hunt, D. McGrath, N. Stergiou, The influence of auditory-motor coupling on fractal dynamics in human gait, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 5879.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
D.G. Vavvas, T.P. Dryja, M.E. Wilson, T.W. Olsen, A. Shah, U. Jurkunas, R. Pineda, V. Poulaki, S. Palioura, P. Veldman, J. Moreno-Montañés, M.D. Pinazo-Duran, J.C. Pastor, M. Tsilimbaris, D. Rhee, K. Colby, D.G. Hunter, S. Thanos, T. Sakamoto, L.R. Pasquale, J.W. Miller, D. VanderVeen, S.R. Lambert, Lens regeneration in children, Nature. 556 (2018) E2–E3.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
P. De Larminat, Climate Change, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2014.
An edited book
N.T. Nguyen, C.-G. Kim, A. Janiak, eds., Intelligent Information and Database Systems: Third International Conference, ACIIDS 2011, Daegu, Korea, April 20-22, 2011, Proceedings, Part I, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
I. Chang, A.O. Rehman, C.-Y. Wang, Molecular Signaling in Oral Cancer Invasion and Metastasis, in: A. M. Fribley (Ed.), Targeting Oral Cancer, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2016: pp. 71–99.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture.

Blog post
S. Luntz, Why Do Female Butterflies Outfly Males?, IFLScience. (2015). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Space Transportation: Critical Areas NASA Needs to Address in Managing Its Reusable Launch Vehicle Program, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2001.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
A. Abrahamian, Diagnosis and treatment of childhood depression: A resource for pediatricians, Doctoral dissertation, Pepperdine University, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
K. Crow, Along The Waterfront, Politics And a Purge, New York Times. (2003) 147.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture
AbbreviationInt. J. Mach. Tools Manuf.
ISSN (print)0890-6955
ScopeIndustrial and Manufacturing Engineering
Mechanical Engineering

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