How to format your references using the International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders (IJLCD). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Newman, A.L., 2015, What the ‘right to be forgotten’ means for privacy in a digital age. Science (New York, N.Y.), 347, 507–508.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kim, M.S. and Cho, J., 2009, Physics. Teleporting a quantum state to distant matter. Science (New York, N.Y.), 323, 469–470.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ahlberg, P.E., Clack, J.A., and Blom, H., 2005, The axial skeleton of the Devonian tetrapod Ichthyostega. Nature, 437, 137–140.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Wang, Y., Botvinick, E.L., Zhao, Y., Berns, M.W., Usami, S., Tsien, R.Y., and Chien, S., 2005, Visualizing the mechanical activation of Src. Nature, 434, 1040–1045.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Coombs, W.T. and Holladay, S.J., 2011, Managing Corporate Social Responsibility (Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell).
An edited book
Ahmad, P. and Prasad, M.N.V. (eds.), 2012, Abiotic Stress Responses in Plants: Metabolism, Productivity and Sustainability (New York, NY: Springer).
A chapter in an edited book
Thirunarayanan, M.O., 2011, Four Priorities for Doctoral Programs in Small Colleges/Universities. In D.M.C. Pérez, S.M. Fain, and J.J. Slater (eds), Higher Education and Human Capital: Re/thinking the Doctorate in America ((Rotterdam: SensePublishers)), pp. 65–73.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders.

Blog post
Fang, J., 2015, Clownfish Seem To Enjoy Warmer Waters [online]. IFLScience. Available: [Accessed 30 October 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1973, Opportunities for Improving Management of Local Telephone Service (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office), No. B-146864.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Shakya, R.M., 2014, Watershed-Scale Evaluation of Flood Reduction Effect of Low Impact Development Designs. Doctoral dissertation Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville, IL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Billard, M., 2013, The Gossip Just Won’t Stop. New York Times, 6 Jun, p. E5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Newman 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Kim and Cho 2009, Newman 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kim and Cho 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Wang et al. 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Language & Communication Disorders
ISSN (print)1368-2822
ISSN (online)1460-6984

Other styles