How to format your references using the International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders (IJLCD). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lawler, A., 2000, LIVING WITH A STAR: Controversy Flares Up Over NASA Solar Project. Science (New York, N.Y.), 289, 528–530.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kosaka, Y. and Xie, S.-P., 2013, Recent global-warming hiatus tied to equatorial Pacific surface cooling. Nature, 501, 403–407.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kim, B.S., Yook, K.S., and Lee, J.Y., 2014, Above 20% external quantum efficiency in novel hybrid white organic light-emitting diodes having green thermally activated delayed fluorescent emitter. Scientific reports, 4, 6019.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Guo, M., Chong, Y.E., Shapiro, R., Beebe, K., Yang, X.-L., and Schimmel, P., 2009, Paradox of mistranslation of serine for alanine caused by AlaRS recognition dilemma. Nature, 462, 808–812.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Mazzi, B., 2013, Treasury Finance and Development Banking (Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.).
An edited book
Lee, R. (ed.), 2013, Software Engineering, Artificial Intelligence, Networking and Parallel/Distributed Computing (Heidelberg: Springer International Publishing).
A chapter in an edited book
Irwin, M.L., 2011, Obesity and Cancer: Epidemiology. In I.G. Fantus (ed), Insulin Resistance and Cancer: Epidemiology, Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms and Clinical Implications ((New York, NY: Springer)), pp. 101–110.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders.

Blog post
Hale, T., 2016, What’s The Most Common Surname In Different Countries Across The World? [online]. IFLScience. Available: [Accessed 30 October 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1992, General Services Issues (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office), No. OCG-93-28TR.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lowrance, T.L., 2017, Exploring the Four Modes of Organizational Forgetting in an Organization Post Acquisition. Doctoral dissertation George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Bowley, G. and Ember, S., 2015, Cosby Legal and Publicity Teams Opt for Silence After Admission Is Released. New York Times, 9 Jul, p. B3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Lawler 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Kosaka and Xie 2013, Lawler 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kosaka and Xie 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Guo et al. 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Language & Communication Disorders
ISSN (print)1368-2822
ISSN (online)1460-6984

Other styles