How to format your references using the International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders (IJLCD). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Neubert, T., 2003, Atmospheric science. On sprites and their exotic kin. Science (New York, N.Y.), 300, 747–749.
A journal article with 2 authors
Zhang, J. and Chan, F.K.-M., 2014, Cell biology. RIPK3 takes another deadly turn. Science (New York, N.Y.), 343, 1322–1323.
A journal article with 3 authors
Chen, M., Wei, L., and Liu, Y., 2014, Motor preparation attenuates neural variability and beta-band LFP in parietal cortex. Scientific reports, 4, 6809.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Kaniewski, D., Van Campo, E., Morhange, C., Guiot, J., Zviely, D., Shaked, I., Otto, T., and Artzy, M., 2013, Early urban impact on Mediterranean coastal environments. Scientific reports, 3, 3540.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Morris, A., 2008, A Practical Guide to Reliable Finite Element Modelling (Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd).
An edited book
Gault, D., 2011, Beginning Oracle Application Express 4 (Berkeley, CA: Apress).
A chapter in an edited book
Otjacques, B., Noirhomme, M., and Feltz, F., 2007, Innovative Visualization Tools to Monitor Scientific Cooperative Activities. In Y. Luo (ed), Cooperative Design, Visualization, and Engineering: 4th International Conference, CDVE 2007, Shanghai, China, September 16-20, 2007. Proceedings ((Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer)), pp. 33–41.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2016, Genetic Detectives: How Scientists Use DNA To Track Disease Outbreaks [online]. IFLScience. Available: [Accessed 30 October 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1999, Year 2000 Computing Crisis: Costs and Planned Use of Emergency Funds (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office), No. AIMD-99-154.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gamez, T.E., 2012, Preventing child maltreatment among children with non-resident fathers: A grant proposal. Doctoral dissertation California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Brantley, B., 2017, First Comes Love, Then Mortality. New York Times, 5 Jan, p. C4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Neubert 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Neubert 2003, Zhang and Chan 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Zhang and Chan 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Kaniewski et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Language & Communication Disorders
ISSN (print)1368-2822
ISSN (online)1460-6984

Other styles