How to format your references using the International Journal of Education and Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Education and Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Deming, D. (2015). Astronomy: A small star with an Earth-like planet. Nature, 527(7577), 169–170.
A journal article with 2 authors
Korup, O., & Montgomery, D. R. (2008). Tibetan plateau river incision inhibited by glacial stabilization of the Tsangpo gorge. Nature, 455(7214), 786–789.
A journal article with 3 authors
Conrad, C. P., Steinberger, B., & Torsvik, T. H. (2013). Stability of active mantle upwelling revealed by net characteristics of plate tectonics. Nature, 498(7455), 479–482.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Kratchmarova, I., Blagoev, B., Haack-Sorensen, M., Kassem, M., & Mann, M. (2005). Mechanism of divergent growth factor effects in mesenchymal stem cell differentiation. Science (New York, N.Y.), 308(5727), 1472–1477.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Center for Chemical Process Safety. (2011). Recognizing Catastrophic Incident Warning Signs in the Process Industries. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Sloboda, Z. (Ed.). (2005). Epidemiology of Drug Abuse. Boston, MA: Springer US.
A chapter in an edited book
Allevi, E., Gnudi, A., & Konnov, I. V. (2006). Partitionable Variational Inequalities with Multi-valued Mappings. In D. T. Luc & A. M. Rubinov (Eds.), Generalized Convexity and Related Topics (pp. 91–100). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Education and Research.

Blog post
Hamilton, K. (2016, September 28). New Water Plumes From Jupiter’s Moon Europa Raise Hopes Of Detecting Microbial Life. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1989). Space Operations: NASA Efforts to Develop and Deploy Advanced Spacecraft Computers (No. IMTEC-89-17). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Stahl-Kovell, D. W. (2014). Reimagining red power: Native American community, activism, and academics in postwar America (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Novick, S. M. (2014, November 23). Shoppers Are Getting a Culinary Lift. New York Times, p. LI9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Deming, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Deming, 2015; Korup & Montgomery, 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Korup & Montgomery, 2008)
  • Three authors: (Conrad, Steinberger, & Torsvik, 2013)
  • 6 or more authors: (Kratchmarova, Blagoev, Haack-Sorensen, Kassem, & Mann, 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Education and Research
ISSN (print)2411-5681

Other styles