How to format your references using the International Journal of Education and Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Education and Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Baruch, J. (2014). Practical science has a global reach and appeal. Nature, 507(7491), 141.
A journal article with 2 authors
Yang, Z.-G., & Zhang, C.-T. (2013). A proposal for a novel impact factor as an alternative to the JCR impact factor. Scientific Reports, 3, 3410.
A journal article with 3 authors
Blomster, J. P., Neff, H., & Glascock, M. D. (2005). Olmec pottery production and export in ancient Mexico determined through elemental analysis. Science (New York, N.Y.), 307(5712), 1068–1072.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Santarelli, R., Gonnella, R., Di Giovenale, G., Cuomo, L., Capobianchi, A., Granato, M., Gentile, G., Faggioni, A., & Cirone, M. (2014). STAT3 activation by KSHV correlates with IL-10, IL-6 and IL-23 release and an autophagic block in dendritic cells. Scientific Reports, 4, 4241.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Wagner, K., & Doroslovački, M. (2013). Proportionate-Type Normalized Least Mean Square Algorithms. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Albrecht-Schmitt, T. E. (Ed.). (2008). Organometallic and Coordination Chemistry of the Actinides (Vol. 127). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Abdalla, M., & Vie, J.-J. (2012). Leakage-Resilient Spatial Encryption. In A. Hevia & G. Neven (Eds.), Progress in Cryptology – LATINCRYPT 2012: 2nd International Conference on Cryptology and Information Security in Latin America, Santiago, Chile, October 7-10, 2012. Proceedings (pp. 78–99). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Education and Research.

Blog post
Andrews, R. (2017, January 17). Researchers Plan To Bring The Caspian Tiger Back From The Dead. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1994). DOD Satellite Control (NSIAD-95-69R). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Tucker, M. S. (2010). Phenotypic and genotypic analysis of in vitro selected artemisinin resistant Plasmodium falciparum [Doctoral dissertation]. University of South Florida.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Marx, L. (2015, February 22). Public-Service Driven, and Into Each Other’s Arms. New York Times, ST22.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Baruch, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Baruch, 2014; Yang & Zhang, 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Yang & Zhang, 2013)
  • Three authors: (Blomster et al., 2005)
  • 6 or more authors: (Santarelli et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Education and Research
ISSN (print)2411-5681

Other styles