How to format your references using the International Journal of Education and Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Education and Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Walker, N. J. (2002). Tech.Sight. A technique whose time has come. Science (New York, N.Y.), 296(5567), 557–559.
A journal article with 2 authors
Gerde, E., & Marder, M. (2001). Friction and fracture. Nature, 413(6853), 285–288.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gandía-Herrero, F., García-Carmona, F., & Escribano, J. (2005). Botany: floral fluorescence effect. Nature, 437(7057), 334.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Ray, B., Henaff, M., Ma, S., Efstathiadis, E., Peskin, E. R., Picone, M., Poli, T., Aliferis, C. F., & Statnikov, A. (2014). Information content and analysis methods for multi-modal high-throughput biomedical data. Scientific Reports, 4, 4411.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Chen, X., Parini, C. G., Collins, B., Yao, Y., & Ur Rehman, M. (2012). Antennas for Global Navigation Satellite Systems. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Culp, P. (2015). Shopping for Water: How the Market Can Mitigate Water Shortages in the American West (R. Glennon & G. Libecap, Eds.). Island Press/Center for Resource Economics.
A chapter in an edited book
Parra, A., Mendes, J. R., Valero, P., & Villavicencio Ubillús, M. (2016). Mathematics Education in Multilingual Contexts for the Indigenous Population in Latin America. In R. Barwell, P. Clarkson, A. Halai, M. Kazima, J. Moschkovich, N. Planas, M. Setati-Phakeng, P. Valero, & M. Villavicencio Ubillús (Eds.), Mathematics Education and Language Diversity: The 21st ICMI Study (pp. 67–84). Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Education and Research.

Blog post
Taub, B. (2016, October 25). Hunters Of South Africa’s “Canned Lions” Can No Longer Bring Their Trophies Into The US. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1994). School-Age Children: Poverty and Diversity Challenge Schools Nationwide (T-HEHS-94-125). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bhandari, S. (2017). The Role of System of Systems in Additive Manufacturing [Doctoral dissertation]. Mississippi State University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Williams, J. (2017, October 6). Leonard Cohen Book Scheduled for 2018. New York Times, C3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Walker, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Gerde & Marder, 2001; Walker, 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Gerde & Marder, 2001)
  • Three authors: (Gandía-Herrero et al., 2005)
  • 6 or more authors: (Ray et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Education and Research
ISSN (print)2411-5681

Other styles