How to format your references using the International Journal of Education and Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Education and Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lifschitz, V. (2011). John McCarthy (1927-2011). Nature, 480(7375), 40.
A journal article with 2 authors
Fletcher, D. A., & Mullins, R. D. (2010). Cell mechanics and the cytoskeleton. Nature, 463(7280), 485–492.
A journal article with 3 authors
Debruyne, R., Schwarz, C., & Poinar, H. (2008). Comment on “Whole-genome shotgun sequencing of mitochondria from ancient hair shafts.” Science (New York, N.Y.), 322(5903), 857; author reply 857.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Zhang, L., Zhong, Y., Cha, D., & Wang, P. (2013). A self-cleaning underwater superoleophobic mesh for oil-water separation. Scientific Reports, 3, 2326.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Schneider, B. D. (2007). Energy Leadership. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Salyapongse, A. N., Poore, S. O., Afifi, A. M., & Bentz, M. L. (Eds.). (2015). Extremity Replantation: A Comprehensive Clinical Guide. Springer US.
A chapter in an edited book
Ramík, J. (2006). Fuzzy linear optimization. In J. Nedoma, J. Ramík, J. Rohn, & K. Zimmermann (Eds.), Linear Optimization Problems with Inexact Data (pp. 117–164). Springer US.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Education and Research.

Blog post
Taub, B. (2016, August 1). This Is What Bronze Age Women Looked Like. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2009). Information Technology: Federal Agencies Need to Strengthen Investment Board Oversight of Poorly Planned and Performing Projects (GAO-09-566). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Smith, K. M. (2008). Meanings of “design” in instructional technology: A conceptual analysis based on the field’s foundational literature [Doctoral dissertation]. Indiana University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Stewart, J. B. (2016, December 8). Fossil Fuel Stocks Divide a Village. New York Times, B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Lifschitz, 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Fletcher & Mullins, 2010; Lifschitz, 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Fletcher & Mullins, 2010)
  • Three authors: (Debruyne et al., 2008)
  • 6 or more authors: (Zhang et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Education and Research
ISSN (print)2411-5681

Other styles