How to format your references using the International Journal of Education and Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Education and Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Leisinger, K. (2015). Business needs to embrace sustainability targets. Nature, 528(7581), 165.
A journal article with 2 authors
Vokrouhlicky, D., & Farinella, P. (2000). Efficient delivery of meteorites to the Earth from a wide range of asteroid parent bodies. Nature, 407(6804), 606–608.
A journal article with 3 authors
Johnson, K. G., Jackson, J. B. C., & Budd, A. F. (2008). Caribbean reef development was independent of coral diversity over 28 million years. Science (New York, N.Y.), 319(5869), 1521–1523.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Comforti, E., Chung, Y. C., Heiblum, M., Umansky, V., & Mahalu, D. (2002). Bunching of fractionally charged quasiparticles tunnelling through high-potential barriers. Nature, 416(6880), 515–518.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Woolson, R. F., & Clarke, W. R. (2002). Statistical Methods for the Analysis of Biomedical Data: Woolson/Statistical. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Lerma, E. V., & Batuman, V. (Eds.). (2014). Diabetes and Kidney Disease. Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Gargantini, A., Petke, J., Radavelli, M., & Vavassori, P. (2016). Validation of Constraints Among Configuration Parameters Using Search-Based Combinatorial Interaction Testing. In F. Sarro & K. Deb (Eds.), Search Based Software Engineering: 8th International Symposium, SSBSE 2016, Raleigh, NC, USA, October 8-10, 2016, Proceedings (pp. 49–63). Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Education and Research.

Blog post
Hamilton, K. (2016, November 7). The Evidence Of Early Human Life In Australia’s Arid Interior. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1989). GAO’s Views on SDIO’s Phase I Cost Estimate (T-NSIAD-89-18). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hooper, K. J. (2017). Los Angeles School Police Department Arrest Diversion: A Process Evaluation [Doctoral dissertation]. California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G. (2011, April 20). Scandinavian Cool That Warmed New York. New York Times, B12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Leisinger, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Leisinger, 2015; Vokrouhlicky & Farinella, 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Vokrouhlicky & Farinella, 2000)
  • Three authors: (Johnson et al., 2008)
  • 6 or more authors: (Comforti et al., 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Education and Research
ISSN (print)2411-5681

Other styles