How to format your references using the International Journal of Coal Science & Technology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Coal Science & Technology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Grayson M (2015) Assessing science. Nature 520:S1
A journal article with 2 authors
Cohen JD, Tong F (2001) Neuroscience. The face of controversy. Science 293:2405–2407
A journal article with 3 authors
Eagleman DM, Jacobson JE, Sejnowski TJ (2004) Perceived luminance depends on temporal context. Nature 428:854–856
A journal article with 5 or more authors
MacDonald MP, Paterson L, Volke-Sepulveda K, et al (2002) Creation and manipulation of three-dimensional optically trapped structures. Science 296:1101–1103

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Duhon T (2012) How the Trading Floor Really Works. John Wiley & Sons Ltd., Chichester, West Sussex, UK
An edited book
Busemeyer JR, Dubois F, Lambert-Mogiliansky A, Melucci M (eds) (2012) Quantum Interaction: 6th International Symposium, QI 2012, Paris, France, June 27-29, 2012, Revised Selected Papers. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Li W-J, Chen Y-S (2016) Politeness and Effectiveness of English Email Requests: Taiwanese Professors’ Perspectives. In: Chen Y-S, Rau D-HV, Rau G (eds) Email Discourse Among Chinese Using English as a Lingua Franca. Springer, Singapore, pp 91–111

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Coal Science & Technology.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) 10 Awesome Animals That Were Hunted To Extinction By Humans Before You Were Born. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1992) Highway Contracting: Disadvantaged Business Eligibility Guidance and Oversight Are Ineffective. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Nagarajan S (2009) Migration, remittances, and household health: Evidence from South Africa. Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Brantley B (2016) A Father and a Family, Dissolving Into Darkness. New York Times C1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Grayson 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Cohen and Tong 2001; Grayson 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Cohen and Tong 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (MacDonald et al. 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Coal Science & Technology
AbbreviationInt. J. Coal Sci. Technol.
ISSN (print)2095-8293
ISSN (online)2198-7823
ScopeGeotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology
Energy Engineering and Power Technology

Other styles