How to format your references using the International Journal of Coal Science & Technology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Coal Science & Technology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ramsay H (2014) Climate science: Shifting storms. Nature 509:290–291
A journal article with 2 authors
Limardo AJ, Worden AZ (2015) Microbiology: Exclusive networks in the sea. Nature 522:36–37
A journal article with 3 authors
Thomas DSG, Knight M, Wiggs GFS (2005) Remobilization of southern African desert dune systems by twenty-first century global warming. Nature 435:1218–1221
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Graetz N, Friedman J, Osgood-Zimmerman A, et al (2018) Mapping local variation in educational attainment across Africa. Nature 555:48–53

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lyatkher VM (2015) Seismic Loads. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
L’ Ecuyer P, Owen AB (eds) (2009) Monte Carlo and Quasi-Monte Carlo Methods 2008. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Kumar V, Reinartz W (2012) Implementing the CRM Strategy. In: Reinartz W (ed) Customer Relationship Management: Concept, Strategy, and Tools. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 55–85

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Coal Science & Technology.

Blog post
Hale T (2016) An Alligator Has Been Found With A Human Body In Its Mouth In Florida. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1999) IRS Management: Business and Systems Modernization Pose Challenges. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Steffan AL (2010) An examination of the correlation between ninth grade mathematics grades and student performance on the mathematics portion of the California high school exit examination. Doctoral dissertation, Pepperdine University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
St. John Kelly E (1999) F.Y.I. New York Times 142

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Ramsay 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Ramsay 2014; Limardo and Worden 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Limardo and Worden 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Graetz et al. 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Coal Science & Technology
AbbreviationInt. J. Coal Sci. Technol.
ISSN (print)2095-8293
ISSN (online)2198-7823
ScopeGeotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology
Energy Engineering and Power Technology

Other styles