How to format your references using the International Journal of Coal Science & Technology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Coal Science & Technology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Zschokke S (2003) Palaeontology: spider-web silk from the Early Cretaceous. Nature 424:636–637
A journal article with 2 authors
Jucker M, Walker LC (2013) Self-propagation of pathogenic protein aggregates in neurodegenerative diseases. Nature 501:45–51
A journal article with 3 authors
Quattrociocchi W, Caldarelli G, Scala A (2014) Opinion dynamics on interacting networks: media competition and social influence. Sci Rep 4:4938
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Rucker R, Storms D, Sheets A, et al (2005) Biochemistry: is pyrroloquinoline quinone a vitamin? Nature 433:E10-1; discussion E11-2

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Cortada JW (2014) The Essential Manager. John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Bahadir AM, Duca G (eds) (2009) The Role of Ecological Chemistry in Pollution Research and Sustainable Development. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht
A chapter in an edited book
Pears R, Sing Koh Y, Dobbie G (2010) EWGen: Automatic Generation of Item Weights for Weighted Association Rule Mining. In: Cao L, Feng Y, Zhong J (eds) Advanced Data Mining and Applications: 6th International Conference, ADMA 2010, Chongqing, China, November 19-21, 2010, Proceedings, Part I. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 36–47

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Coal Science & Technology.

Blog post
Hale T (2016) Thousand Of Migrating Snow Geese Die After Landing In Toxic Mine. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2015) Highlights of a Forum: Financial Literacy: The Role of the Workplace. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Anaya S (2009) Animo clinician training program for detection and treatment of depression during pregnancy and postpartum depression in low income Latina women a grant proposal project. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Brantley B (2016) A Maternal Giant, Spinning Tall Tales. New York Times C2

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Zschokke 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Zschokke 2003; Jucker and Walker 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Jucker and Walker 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Rucker et al. 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Coal Science & Technology
AbbreviationInt. J. Coal Sci. Technol.
ISSN (print)2095-8293
ISSN (online)2198-7823
ScopeGeotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology
Energy Engineering and Power Technology

Other styles