How to format your references using the International Journal of Biodiversity Science, Ecosystem Services & Management citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Biodiversity Science, Ecosystem Services & Management. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Myhre G. 2009. Consistency between satellite-derived and modeled estimates of the direct aerosol effect. Science. 325:187–190.
A journal article with 2 authors
Rolff J, Siva-Jothy MT. 2003. Invertebrate ecological immunology. Science. 301:472–475.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kumar P, Narayan R, Johnson JL. 2008. Properties of gamma-ray burst progenitor stars. Science. 321:376–379.
A journal article with 12 or more authors
Husko CA, Clark AS, Collins MJ, De Rossi A, Combrié S, Lehoucq G, Rey IH, Krauss TF, Xiong C, Eggleton BJ. 2013. Multi-photon absorption limits to heralded single photon sources. Sci Rep. 3:3087.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Callard F, Sartorius N, Arboleda-Flórez J, Bartlett P, Helmchen H, Stuart H, Taborda J, Thornicroft G. 2012. Mental Illness, Discrimination and the Law. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Gontero P, Kirby RS, Carson CC III, editors. 2013. Problem Based Urology. London: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Mukhamedov F, Ganikhodjaev N. 2015. Analytic Methods in the Theory of Quadratic Stochastic Processes. In: Ganikhodjaev N, editor. Quantum Quadratic Operators and Processes. Cham: Springer International Publishing; p. 61–84.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Biodiversity Science, Ecosystem Services & Management.

Blog post
Andrew E. 2014. Axolotl feared extinct in the wild. IFLScience [Internet]. [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2007. USCIS Transformation: Improvements to Performance, Human Capital, and Information Technology Management Needed as Modernization Proceeds. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hayen CJ. 2017. Canine-Assisted Psychotherapy: Finding the Way Back to Our Animal Soul [Doctoral dissertation]. Carpinteria, CA: Pacifica Graduate Institute.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Southall A. 2016. Brownsville Residents Seek Answers After a Mentally Ill Ex-Convict Is Fatally Shot. New York Times.:A15.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Myhre 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Rolff & Siva-Jothy 2003; Myhre 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Rolff & Siva-Jothy 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Husko et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Biodiversity Science, Ecosystem Services & Management
AbbreviationInt. J. Biodivers. Sci. Eco. Srvcs. Mgmt.
ISSN (print)2151-3732
ISSN (online)2151-3740
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law
Nature and Landscape Conservation

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