How to format your references using the International Journal of Biodiversity Science, Ecosystem Services & Management citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Biodiversity Science, Ecosystem Services & Management. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kerr RA. 2000. The Sun Again Intrudes on Earth’s Decadal Climate Change. Science. 288(5473):1986.
A journal article with 2 authors
Xue Y, Sherman DH. 2000. Alternative modular polyketide synthase expression controls macrolactone structure. Nature. 403(6769):571–575.
A journal article with 3 authors
Evans WJ, Kozimor SA, Ziller JW. 2005. Molecular octa-uranium rings with alternating nitride and azide bridges. Science. 309(5742):1835–1838.
A journal article with 12 or more authors
Berset T, Hoier EF, Battu G, Canevascini S, Hajnal A. 2001. Notch inhibition of RAS signaling through MAP kinase phosphatase LIP-1 during C. elegans vulval development. Science. 291(5506):1055–1058.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Tunley M, Whittaker A, Gee J, Button M. 2015. The Accredited Counter Fraud Specialist Handbook. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Jin S, Barzaghi R, editors. 2016. IGFS 2014: Proceedings of the 3rd International Gravity Field Service (IGFS), Shanghai, China, June 30 - July 6, 2014. 1st ed. 2016. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Terrazas G, Krasnogor N. 2012. Genotype-Fitness Correlation Analysis for Evolutionary Design of Self-assembly Wang Tiles. In: Pelta DA, Krasnogor N, Dumitrescu D, Chira C, Lung R, editors. Nature Inspired Cooperative Strategies for Optimization (NICSO 2011). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; p. 73–84.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Biodiversity Science, Ecosystem Services & Management.

Blog post
Hale T. 2017. Discovery Of Oldest Croc Eggs Date From 152 Million Years Ago. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2004. Aviation Security: Factors Could Limit the Effectiveness of the Transportation Security Administration’s Efforts to Secure Aerial Advertising Operations. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
McClurg AD. 2013. A phenomenological study of Baby Boomer retirement— Expectations, results, and implications [Doctoral dissertation]. Phoenix, AZ: University of Phoenix.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse L. 2007. Elizabeth Taylor To Keep Van Gogh. New York Times.:E2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Kerr 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Xue and Sherman 2000; Kerr 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Xue and Sherman 2000)
  • Three or more authors: (Berset et al. 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Biodiversity Science, Ecosystem Services & Management
AbbreviationInt. J. Biodivers. Sci. Eco. Srvcs. Mgmt.
ISSN (print)2151-3732
ISSN (online)2151-3740
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law
Nature and Landscape Conservation

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