How to format your references using the International Journal for Parasitology: Parasites and Wildlife citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal for Parasitology: Parasites and Wildlife. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Dubnau, J., 2012. Neuroscience. Ode to the mushroom bodies. Science 335, 664–665.
A journal article with 2 authors
French, S.W., Romanowicz, B., 2015. Broad plumes rooted at the base of the Earth’s mantle beneath major hotspots. Nature 525, 95–99.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kaminski, J.A., Sloutsky, V.M., Heckler, A.F., 2008. Learning theory. The advantage of abstract examples in learning math. Science 320, 454–455.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Raza, Z., Errea, I., Oganov, A.R., Saitta, A.M., 2014. Novel superconducting skutterudite-type phosphorus nitride at high pressure from first-principles calculations. Sci. Rep. 4, 5889.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Packard, A., 2010. Digital Media Law. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK.
An edited book
Bruza, P., Weeber, M. (Eds.), 2008. Literature-based Discovery, Information Science and Knowledge Management. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Capasso, F., 2011. Controllo di qualità delle droghe vegetali, in: Capasso, F. (Ed.), Farmacognosia: Botanica, Chimica e Farmacologia Delle Piante Medicinali. Springer, Milano, pp. 39–45.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal for Parasitology: Parasites and Wildlife.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2014. Sumatran Tiger Gives Birth To Triplets In London Zoo [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2003. Direct Student Loan Program: Management Actions Could Enhance Customer Service (No. GAO-04-107). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Sun, Z., 2013. A qualitative study of Chinese parents’ beliefs, involvement and challenges in support of their children’s English language development in China (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gorman, J., 2016. Judge Allows Departure of 7 Chimps to England. New York Times A12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Dubnau, 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Dubnau, 2012; French and Romanowicz, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (French and Romanowicz, 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Raza et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal for Parasitology: Parasites and Wildlife
AbbreviationInt. J. Parasitol. Parasites Wildl.
ISSN (print)2213-2244
ScopeAnimal Science and Zoology
Infectious Diseases

Other styles