How to format your references using the International Journal for Parasitology: Parasites and Wildlife citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal for Parasitology: Parasites and Wildlife. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Plutzky, J., 2003. Medicine. PPARs as therapeutic targets: reverse cardiology? Science 302, 406–407.
A journal article with 2 authors
Nusbaum, M.P., Beenhakker, M.P., 2002. A small-systems approach to motor pattern generation. Nature 417, 343–350.
A journal article with 3 authors
Sun, X., Mariani, F.V., Martin, G.R., 2002. Functions of FGF signalling from the apical ectodermal ridge in limb development. Nature 418, 501–508.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Markovitsi, D., Talbot, F., Gustavsson, T., Onidas, D., Lazzarotto, E., Marguet, S., 2006. Molecular spectroscopy: complexity of excited-state dynamics in DNA. Nature 441, E7; discussion E8.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Vilensky, J.A., Robertson, W.M., Suárez-Quian, C.A., 2015. The Clinical Anatomy of the Cranial Nerves. John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Lytras, M.D., Damiani, E., Ordóñez de Pablos, P. (Eds.), 2009. Web 2.0: The Business Model. Springer US, Boston, MA.
A chapter in an edited book
Gierlich, H.-W., 2014. Car Hands-Free Testing and Optimization: An Overview, in: Schmidt, G., Abut, H., Takeda, K., Hansen, J.H.L. (Eds.), Smart Mobile In-Vehicle Systems: Next Generation Advancements. Springer, New York, NY, pp. 59–80.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal for Parasitology: Parasites and Wildlife.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2016. Gorillas In Zoos – The Unpalatable Truth [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2010. Telecommunications: The Proposed Performance Rights Act Would Result in Additional Costs for Broadcast Radio Stations and Additional Revenue for Record Companies, Musicians, and Performers (No. GAO-10-826). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Schmittel, M., 2013. The Children First Foundation Parenting Education Program: A Study on the Effectiveness of a Divorce Parenting Education Program (Doctoral dissertation). Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville, IL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Fiske, I.H., 1906. KEATS’S “LAMIA.”; Found on Shelley’s Drowned Body and Cast Into His Funeral Flames. New York Times REVIEW OF BOOKSBR61.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Müller, 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Bertrand, 2004; Sarewitz, 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Nusbaum and Beenhakker, 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Ma et al., 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal for Parasitology: Parasites and Wildlife
AbbreviationInt. J. Parasitol. Parasites Wildl.
ISSN (print)2213-2244
ScopeAnimal Science and Zoology
Infectious Diseases

Other styles