How to format your references using the International Journal for Parasitology: Parasites and Wildlife citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal for Parasitology: Parasites and Wildlife. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Dolan, L., 2007. Plant science. SCARECROWs at the border. Science 316, 377–378.
A journal article with 2 authors
LeRoy, B.J., Yankowitz, M., 2014. Physics. Emergent complex states in bilayer graphene. Science 345, 31–32.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lutz, W., Cuaresma, J.C., Sanderson, W., 2008. Economics. The demography of educational attainment and economic growth. Science 319, 1047–1048.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Tumbar, T., Guasch, G., Greco, V., Blanpain, C., Lowry, W.E., Rendl, M., Fuchs, E., 2004. Defining the epithelial stem cell niche in skin. Science 303, 359–363.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
McConnell, J., 2011. Index of Medical Imaging. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK.
An edited book
Nagel, W.E., Kröner, D., Resch, M. (Eds.), 2008. High Performance Computing in Science and Engineering `07: Transactions of the High Performance Computing Center, Stuttgart (HLRS) 2007. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Verburg, P.H., Kok, K., Pontius, R.G., Jr., Veldkamp, A., 2006. Modeling Land-Use and Land-Cover Change, in: Lambin, E.F., Geist, H. (Eds.), Land-Use and Land-Cover Change: Local Processes and Global Impacts, Global Change - The IGBP Series. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 117–135.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal for Parasitology: Parasites and Wildlife.

Blog post
Hale, T., 2016. These 3D-Printing Spider Robots Could Be The Future Of Construction [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1995. Cassini Mission: Estimated Launch Costs for NASA’s Mission to Saturn (No. NSIAD-95-141BR). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bennett, A.L., 2019. An Empirical Longitudinal Analysis of Agile Methodologies and Firm Financial Performance (Doctoral dissertation). George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse, L., 2006. justices decline terrorism case of a u.s. citizen. New York Times A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Dolan, 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Dolan, 2007; LeRoy and Yankowitz, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (LeRoy and Yankowitz, 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Tumbar et al., 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal for Parasitology: Parasites and Wildlife
AbbreviationInt. J. Parasitol. Parasites Wildl.
ISSN (print)2213-2244
ScopeAnimal Science and Zoology
Infectious Diseases

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