How to format your references using the International Journal for Parasitology: Parasites and Wildlife citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal for Parasitology: Parasites and Wildlife. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Quirk, T., 2012. Writers should not fear jargon. Nature 487, 407.
A journal article with 2 authors
Collier, P., Alles, C.M., 2010. Materials science. Materials ecology: an industrial perspective. Science 330, 919–920.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kobayashi, K., Yoshimura, J., Hasegawa, E., 2013. Coexistence of sexual individuals and genetically isolated asexual counterparts in a thrips. Sci. Rep. 3, 3286.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Prevedel, R., Walther, P., Tiefenbacher, F., Böhi, P., Kaltenbaek, R., Jennewein, T., Zeilinger, A., 2007. High-speed linear optics quantum computing using active feed-forward. Nature 445, 65–69.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Center for Chemical Process Safety, 1994. Tools for Making Acute Risk Decisions. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Vaamonde, D., du Plessis, S.S., Agarwal, A. (Eds.), 2016. Exercise and Human Reproduction: Induced Fertility Disorders and Possible Therapies. Springer, New York, NY.
A chapter in an edited book
Looney, D., Kidmose, P., Mandic, D.P., 2014. Ear-EEG: User-Centered and Wearable BCI, in: Guger, C., Allison, B., Leuthardt, E.C. (Eds.), Brain-Computer Interface Research: A State-of-the-Art Summary -2, Biosystems & Biorobotics. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 41–50.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal for Parasitology: Parasites and Wildlife.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2014. Amazing X-ray GIFs Show Joints In Motion [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2010. Postsecondary Education: Many States Collect Graduates’ Employment Information, but Clearer Guidance on Student Privacy Requirements Is Needed (No. GAO-10-927). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Woodland, R.J., 2010. Investigating the role of the mid-Atlantic inner continental shelf as a marine finfish nursery: A comparative approach (Doctoral dissertation). University of Maryland, College Park, College Park, MD.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
Wagner, J., 2016. A Collision at the Plate Shakes Up Flores and Leaves the Mets Reeling. New York Times SP10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Quirk, 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Collier and Alles, 2010; Quirk, 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Collier and Alles, 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (Prevedel et al., 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal for Parasitology: Parasites and Wildlife
AbbreviationInt. J. Parasitol. Parasites Wildl.
ISSN (print)2213-2244
ScopeAnimal Science and Zoology
Infectious Diseases

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