How to format your references using the International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Roy, K., 2008. Evolution. Dynamics of body size evolution. Science 321, 1451–1452.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ravizza, G., Peucker-Ehrenbrink, B., 2003. Chemostratigraphic evidence of Deccan volcanism from the marine osmium isotope record. Science 302, 1392–1395.
A journal article with 3 authors
Rees, M., Koppelman, B., Davison, N., 2010. Scientific steps to nuclear disarmament. Nature 465, 290–291.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Konhauser, K.O., Pecoits, E., Lalonde, S.V., Papineau, D., Nisbet, E.G., Barley, M.E., Arndt, N.T., Zahnle, K., Kamber, B.S., 2009. Oceanic nickel depletion and a methanogen famine before the Great Oxidation Event. Nature 458, 750–753.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
O’Connor, D., 2009. God, Evil, and Design. Blackwell Publishing Ltd., Oxford, UK.
An edited book
Weltner, K., 2009. Mathematics for Physicists and Engineers: Fundamentals and Interactive Study Guide. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Tsay, Y.-K., Wang, B.-Y., 2008. Automated Compositional Reasoning of Intuitionistically Closed Regular Properties, in: Ibarra, O.H., Ravikumar, B. (Eds.), Implementation and Applications of Automata: 13th International Conference, CIAA 2008, San Francisco, California, USA, July 21-24, 2008. Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 36–45.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation.

Blog post
Carpineti, A., 2016. Galactic “Eyelids” Spotted In Distant Galaxy Merger [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1976. Standard Budget Classifications--Proposed Functions and Subfunctions (No. PAD-76-49). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Eskridge, R.D., 2012. Municipal government: Does institutional structural reform make a difference in local government? (Doctoral dissertation). Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, M., 1993. Saint Hillary. New York Times 622.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Roy, 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Roy, 2008, 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Ravizza and Peucker-Ehrenbrink, 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Konhauser et al., 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Biodeterioration & Biodegradation
AbbreviationInt. Biodeterior. Biodegradation
ISSN (print)0964-8305
ScopeWaste Management and Disposal

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