How to format your references using the International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Fukami, T., 2013. IBI* series winner. Integrating inquiry-based teaching with faculty research. Science 339, 1536–1537.
A journal article with 2 authors
Devoret, M.H., Schoelkopf, R.J., 2000. Amplifying quantum signals with the single-electron transistor. Nature 406, 1039–1046.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lavrentovich, O.D., Lazo, I., Pishnyak, O.P., 2010. Nonlinear electrophoresis of dielectric and metal spheres in a nematic liquid crystal. Nature 467, 947–950.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Nishida, Y., Arakawa, S., Fujitani, K., Yamaguchi, H., Mizuta, T., Kanaseki, T., Komatsu, M., Otsu, K., Tsujimoto, Y., Shimizu, S., 2009. Discovery of Atg5/Atg7-independent alternative macroautophagy. Nature 461, 654–658.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Liu, H.H., 2011. Oracle Database Performance and Scalability. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Ziegler, A., Graafsma, H., Zhang, X.F., Frenken, J.W.M. (Eds.), 2014. In-situ Materials Characterization: Across Spatial and Temporal Scales, Springer Series in Materials Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Beckner, M., Arisawa, T., 2013. Reporting, in: Arisawa, T. (Ed.), Microsoft Dynamics CRM API Development for Online and On-Premise Environments. Apress, Berkeley, CA, pp. 61–74.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. Remind Me Again, How Does Cannabis Affect The Brain? [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1990. Quality Management: Scoping Study (No. ACG/OPS-91-1). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Otarola, A.C., 2008. The effects of turbulence in an absorbing atmosphere on the propagation of microwave signals used in an active sounding system (Doctoral dissertation). University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Burghardt, L.F., 2005. On the Curriculum, A Palette of Choices. New York Times 14LI20.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Fukami, 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Devoret and Schoelkopf, 2000; Fukami, 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Devoret and Schoelkopf, 2000)
  • Three or more authors: (Nishida et al., 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Biodeterioration & Biodegradation
AbbreviationInt. Biodeterior. Biodegradation
ISSN (print)0964-8305
ScopeWaste Management and Disposal

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