How to format your references using the International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Russo, E., 2002. Chemistry plans a structural overhaul. Nature 419, 4–7.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sennett, R., Rendl, M., 2015. Developmental biology. A scar is born: origins of fibrotic skin tissue. Science 348, 284–285.
A journal article with 3 authors
Biertümpfel, C., Yang, W., Suck, D., 2007. Crystal structure of T4 endonuclease VII resolving a Holliday junction. Nature 449, 616–620.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Zhou, H., Seo, J.-H., Paskiewicz, D.M., Zhu, Y., Celler, G.K., Voyles, P.M., Zhou, W., Lagally, M.G., Ma, Z., 2013. Fast flexible electronics with strained silicon nanomembranes. Sci. Rep. 3, 1291.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kölle, W., 2009. Wasseranalysen - richtig beurteilt. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany.
An edited book
Esparza, J., Majumdar, R. (Eds.), 2010. Tools and Algorithms for the Construction and Analysis of Systems: 16th International Conference, TACAS 2010, Held as Part of the Joint European Conferences on Theory and Practice of Software, ETAPS 2010, Paphos, Cyprus, March 20-28, 2010. Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
De Cecco, C.N., Rengo, M., 2014. D, in: Rengo, M. (Ed.), MDCT and MRI of the Heart, A-Z Notes in Radiological Practice and Reporting. Springer, Milano, pp. 39–45.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation.

Blog post
Luntz, S., 2014. Triple-Breasted Claim Demonstrates Internet Gullibility Again [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1994. Longer Combination Trucks: Potential Infrastructure Impacts, Productivity Benefits, and Safety Concerns (No. RCED-94-106). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Sylvain, O., 2010. Domesticating “the Great, Throbbing, Common Pulse of America”: A Study of the Ideological Origins of the Radio Act of 1927 (Doctoral dissertation). Columbia University, New York, NY.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gardiner, K., 2016. Sing, Memory. New York Times BR10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Russo, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Russo, 2002; Sennett and Rendl, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Sennett and Rendl, 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Zhou et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Biodeterioration & Biodegradation
AbbreviationInt. Biodeterior. Biodegradation
ISSN (print)0964-8305
ScopeWaste Management and Disposal

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