How to format your references using the International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Carroll, S.B., 2001. Chance and necessity: the evolution of morphological complexity and diversity. Nature 409, 1102–1109.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sagarin, R., Micheli, F., 2001. Climate change in nontraditional data sets. Science 294, 811.
A journal article with 3 authors
Blois, J.L., McGuire, J.L., Hadly, E.A., 2010. Small mammal diversity loss in response to late-Pleistocene climatic change. Nature 465, 771–774.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Hughes, J.F., Skaletsky, H., Pyntikova, T., Graves, T.A., van Daalen, S.K.M., Minx, P.J., Fulton, R.S., McGrath, S.D., Locke, D.P., Friedman, C., Trask, B.J., Mardis, E.R., Warren, W.C., Repping, S., Rozen, S., Wilson, R.K., Page, D.C., 2010. Chimpanzee and human Y chromosomes are remarkably divergent in structure and gene content. Nature 463, 536–539.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Le Ruyet, D., Pischella, M., 2015. Digital Communications 1. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Schleicher, D., Lackmann, M. (Eds.), 2011. An Invitation to Mathematics: From Competitions to Research. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Almalfouh, S.M., Stüber, G.L., 2009. Interference Aware Subcarrier and Power Allocation in OFDMA-Based Cognitive Radio Networks, in: Plass, S., Dammann, A., Kaiser, S., Fazel, K. (Eds.), Multi-Carrier Systems & Solutions 2009, Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp. 35–45.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2014. Bubonic Plague Outbreak Spreads in Madagascar [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1977. Status of the Mariner Jupiter/Saturn 1977 Project (No. PSAD-77-103). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hidalgo, F., 2017. Light of Hope Recuperative Care Center, LLC: A Business Plan (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M’kay, I.P., 1936. REDEFINING POLITICAL TERMS; Need Seen for New Outlook on the Tariff and Isolation. New York Times social news books14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Carroll, 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Carroll, 2001; Sagarin and Micheli, 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Sagarin and Micheli, 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Hughes et al., 2010)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Biodeterioration & Biodegradation
AbbreviationInt. Biodeterior. Biodegradation
ISSN (print)0964-8305
ScopeWaste Management and Disposal

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