How to format your references using the Interdisciplinary Neurosurgery: Advanced Techniques and Case Management citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Interdisciplinary Neurosurgery: Advanced Techniques and Case Management. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
M.P. Harmer, Materials science. The phase behavior of interfaces, Science. 332 (2011) 182–183.
A journal article with 2 authors
D.W. Thompson, J.M. Wallace, Regional climate impacts of the Northern Hemisphere annular mode, Science. 293 (2001) 85–89.
A journal article with 3 authors
M. Parry, J. Lowe, C. Hanson, Overshoot, adapt and recover, Nature. 458 (2009) 1102–1103.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
H. Imamizu, S. Miyauchi, T. Tamada, Y. Sasaki, R. Takino, B. Pütz, T. Yoshioka, M. Kawato, Human cerebellar activity reflecting an acquired internal model of a new tool, Nature. 403 (2000) 192–195.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
X. Qiu, C. Ding, D. Hu, Bistatic SAR Data Processing Algorithms, John Wiley & Sons Singapore Pte. Ltd., Solaris South Tower, Singapore, 2013.
An edited book
R.R. Dickson, J. Meincke, P. Rhines, eds., Arctic–Subarctic Ocean Fluxes: Defining the Role of the Northern Seas in Climate, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
N. Siddiqui, H.G. Töre, V. Yaghmai, Post-locoregional Therapy Imaging of the Liver, in: K.M. Elsayes (Ed.), Cross-Sectional Imaging of the Abdomen and Pelvis: A Practical Algorithmic Approach, Springer, New York, NY, 2015: pp. 97–109.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Interdisciplinary Neurosurgery: Advanced Techniques and Case Management.

Blog post
J. O`Callaghan, Japanese Experiment To Clean Up Space Junk In Orbit Encounters Problem, IFLScience. (2017).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Review of the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare’s Actions To Carry Out the Provisions of the National Cooley’s Anemia Control Act, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1974.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
J.P. Linsenmeyer, A Nice Place to Live and Work: A Mixed-Methods Case Study of a Residential Life Living-Learning Community and Employment Model at a Top-Tier Midwestern University, Doctoral dissertation, Lindenwood University, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
K. Belson, Marathon Presses On as Backlash Builds, New York Times. (2012) B9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInterdisciplinary Neurosurgery: Advanced Techniques and Case Management
AbbreviationInterdiscip. Neurosurg.
ISSN (print)2214-7519
ScopeClinical Neurology

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