How to format your references using the Interaction Design & Architecture(s) citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Interaction Design & Architecture(s). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Maynard A.D.: Don’t define nanomaterials Nature, 475, pp. 31 (2011)
A journal article with 2 authors
Sandalow D.B., Bowles I.A.: Climate change. Fundamentals of treaty-making on climate change Science, 292, pp. 1839–1840 (2001)
A journal article with 3 authors
Roberts R.B., Ser J.R., Kocher T.D.: Sexual conflict resolved by invasion of a novel sex determiner in Lake Malawi cichlid fishes Science, 326, pp. 998–1001 (2009)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Shoaie S., Karlsson F., Mardinoglu A., Nookaew I., Bordel S., Nielsen J.: Understanding the interactions between bacteria in the human gut through metabolic modeling Sci. Rep., 3, pp. 2532 (2013)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bains G.: Cultural DNA, John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ, (2015)
An edited book
Xue J., Zhao Z., Dai Y., Wang B. eds: Green Low-Carbon Development in China, Springer International Publishing, Cham, (2013)
A chapter in an edited book
Deutscher G.: Point Contact Spectroscopy in Strongly Correlated Systems in Avella, A. and Mancini, F. (eds.) Strongly Correlated Systems: Experimental Techniques. pp. 111–135. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (2015)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Interaction Design & Architecture(s).

Blog post
Andrew E.: Rising Seas Threaten To Drown Important Mangrove Forests, Unless We Intervene,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Unanswered Questions on Educating Handicapped Children in Local Public Schools, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, (1981)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Subbarao S.: An 8-PSK super regenerative receiver: Design and simulation, (2015)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Stewart J.B.: Tax Cuts Are Easy, but a Tax Overhaul? Three Proposals to Make the Math Work, (2017)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInteraction Design & Architecture(s)
ISSN (print)1826-9745
ISSN (online)2283-2998

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