How to format your references using the Interaction Design & Architecture(s) citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Interaction Design & Architecture(s). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Grangier P.: Physics. Make it quantum and continuous Science, 332, pp. 313–314 (2011)
A journal article with 2 authors
Oltvai Z.N., Barabási A.-L.: Systems biology. Life’s complexity pyramid Science, 298, pp. 763–764 (2002)
A journal article with 3 authors
Ballentine C.J., Porcelli D., Wieler R.: Noble gases in mantle plumes Science, 291, pp. 2269 (2001)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Hof B., van Doorne C.W.H., Westerweel J., Nieuwstadt F.T.M., Faisst H., Eckhardt B., Wedin H., Kerswell R.R., Waleffe F.: Experimental observation of nonlinear traveling waves in turbulent pipe flow Science, 305, pp. 1594–1598 (2004)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Szpankowski W.: Average Case Analysis of Algorithms on Sequences, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, (2001)
An edited book
Bauer L., Körtvélyessy L., Štekauer P. eds: Semantics of Complex Words, Springer International Publishing, Cham, (2015)
A chapter in an edited book
Estermann I.: Applications of Molecular Beams to Problems in Rarefied Gas Dynamics in Ferrari, C. (ed.) Dinamica dei gas rarefatti. pp. 267–304. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (2011)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Interaction Design & Architecture(s).

Blog post
Andrews R.: The First Death Involving A Self-Driving Car Has Just Been Reported,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Crop Insurance: Savings Would Result from Program Changes and Greater Use of Data Mining, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, (2012)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Swofford D.M.: Impact of a pharmaceutical company’s leadership development program on participant leadership behavior, (2009)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Baker L.: The Complexities of Keeping It Small and Simple, (2007)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInteraction Design & Architecture(s)
ISSN (print)1826-9745
ISSN (online)2283-2998

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