How to format your references using the Interaction Design & Architecture(s) citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Interaction Design & Architecture(s). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Nelson F.E.: Geocryology. (Un)frozen in time Science, 299, pp. 1673–1675 (2003)
A journal article with 2 authors
Turner B.L., Haygarth P.M.: Biogeochemistry. Phosphorus solubilization in rewetted soils Nature, 411, pp. 258 (2001)
A journal article with 3 authors
Gore J., Youk H., van Oudenaarden A.: Snowdrift game dynamics and facultative cheating in yeast Nature, 459, pp. 253–256 (2009)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Guttman M., Donaghey J., Carey B.W., Garber M., Grenier J.K., Munson G., Young G., Lucas A.B., Ach R., Bruhn L., Yang X., Amit I., Meissner A., Regev A., Rinn J.L., Root D.E., Lander E.S.: lincRNAs act in the circuitry controlling pluripotency and differentiation Nature, 477, pp. 295–300 (2011)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Olofsson P.: Probabilities, John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ, (2014)
An edited book
Smith J.R.: Women’s Cancers: Pathways to Healing: A Patient’s Guide to Dealing with Cancer and Abnormal Smears, Springer, London, (2009)
A chapter in an edited book
Patterson C.: The Role of Surgery in Pulmonary Hypertension in Madden, B. (ed.) Treatment of Pulmonary Hypertension. pp. 147–170. Springer International Publishing, Cham (2015)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Interaction Design & Architecture(s).

Blog post
Andrew E.: Top 10 Unsolved Mysteries of Science,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Validity and Comparability of Quantitative Data Presented by the President’s Council on Integrity and Efficiency on Inspectors General Activities, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, (1982)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Clendening R.J.: A structured methodology for unifying functional analysis with systems analysis to enhance system behavior knowledge, (2009)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wasik J.F.: How to Get Financial Advice in Your Best Interest, (2017)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInteraction Design & Architecture(s)
ISSN (print)1826-9745
ISSN (online)2283-2998

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