How to format your references using the Intensive & Critical Care Nursing citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Intensive & Critical Care Nursing. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sandrian, M.G., 2015. A European postdoc for the family. Science 347, 346.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wei, H.-R., Deng, F.-G., 2014. Scalable quantum computing based on stationary spin qubits in coupled quantum dots inside double-sided optical microcavities. Sci. Rep. 4, 7551.
A journal article with 3 authors
Mihalcescu, I., Hsing, W., Leibler, S., 2004. Resilient circadian oscillator revealed in individual cyanobacteria. Nature 430, 81–85.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Nguyen, V.T., Kiss, T., Michels, A.A., Bensaude, O., 2001. 7SK small nuclear RNA binds to and inhibits the activity of CDK9/cyclin T complexes. Nature 414, 322–325.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Jepsen, T.C., 2003. Distributed Storage Networks. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, West Sussex, England.
An edited book
Cuenca, P., Orozco-Barbosa, L. (Eds.), 2006. Personal Wireless Communications: IFIP TC6 11th International Conference, PWC 2006, Albacete, Spain, September 20-22, 2006. Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Ruiz-Amaya, J., Delgado-Restituto, M., Rodríguez-Vázquez, Á., 2011. Case Study: Design of a 10bit@60MS Pipeline ADC, in: Delgado-Restituto, M., Rodríguez-Vázquez, Á. (Eds.), Device-Level Modeling and Synthesis of High-Performance Pipeline ADCs. Springer, New York, NY, pp. 105–170.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Intensive & Critical Care Nursing.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. Human Experiments – The Good, The Bad, And The Ugly [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1984. Privacy Policy Activities of the National Telecommunications and Information Administration (No. GGD-84-93). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Cook, M.M., 2017. An Examination of the Proportion of Special Education Students in Single-Parent Homes in Comparison to Regular Education Students in Similar Households (Doctoral dissertation). Lindenwood University, St. Charles, MO.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
(nyt), S.K., 2002. World Briefing | Europe: Belarus: New Law Restricts Religions. New York Times A7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Sandrian, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Sandrian, 2015; Wei and Deng, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Wei and Deng, 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Nguyen et al., 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleIntensive & Critical Care Nursing
AbbreviationIntensive Crit. Care Nurs.
ISSN (print)0964-3397
ScopeCritical Care

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