How to format your references using the Intensive & Critical Care Nursing citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Intensive & Critical Care Nursing. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Jayaraman, K.S., 2002. Cutbacks cost jobs at agricultural institute. Nature 415, 949.
A journal article with 2 authors
Jackson, S.T., Hobbs, R.J., 2009. Ecological restoration in the light of ecological history. Science 325, 567–569.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kusano, K., Johnson-Schlitz, D.M., Engels, W.R., 2001. Sterility of Drosophila with mutations in the Bloom syndrome gene--complementation by Ku70. Science 291, 2600–2602.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Davies, T.P., Fry, H.M., Wilson, A.G., Bishop, S.R., 2013. A mathematical model of the London riots and their policing. Sci. Rep. 3, 1303.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kesidis, G., 2007. An Introduction to Communication Network Analysis. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Ernst, A., Schäfer, P., Scholz, J. (Eds.), 2013. Bryozoan Studies 2010, Lecture Notes in Earth System Sciences. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Benjamini, I., Schramm, O., 2012. Finite Transitive Graph Embeddings into a Hyperbolic Metric Space Must Stretch or Squeeze, in: Klartag, B., Mendelson, S., Milman, V.D. (Eds.), Geometric Aspects of Functional Analysis: Israel Seminar 2006–2010, Lecture Notes in Mathematics. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 123–126.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Intensive & Critical Care Nursing.

Blog post
Hale, T., 2016. The Face Of Scottish King Robert The Bruce Has Been Digitally Reconstructed [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1999. Federal Research: Guidance for Equipment Acquired Under Grants and Cooperative Agreements (No. RCED-99-73). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Casco, D., 2014. Consonance: An inter play of music and design to evoke curiosity and awareness of our musical identity (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Saslow, L., 2005. Revolving Roles. New York Times 14LI12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Jayaraman, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Jackson and Hobbs, 2009; Jayaraman, 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Jackson and Hobbs, 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Davies et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleIntensive & Critical Care Nursing
AbbreviationIntensive Crit. Care Nurs.
ISSN (print)0964-3397
ScopeCritical Care

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