How to format your references using the Intensive & Critical Care Nursing citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Intensive & Critical Care Nursing. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gravitz, L., 2014. Therapy: This time it’s personal. Nature 509, S52-4.
A journal article with 2 authors
Müller, B., Sheen, J., 2008. Cytokinin and auxin interaction in root stem-cell specification during early embryogenesis. Nature 453, 1094–1097.
A journal article with 3 authors
McCarter, J., Boge, G., Darlow, G., 2001. Essays on science and society. Safeguarding the world’s natural treasures. Science 294, 2099–2101.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Singh, P.K., Parsek, M.R., Greenberg, E.P., Welsh, M.J., 2002. A component of innate immunity prevents bacterial biofilm development. Nature 417, 552–555.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Center for Chemical Process Safety, 1998. Guidelines for Safe Warehousing of Chemicals. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Vazquez Alvarez, A.J., 2015. An Introduction to Optimal Satellite Range Scheduling, Springer Optimization and Its Applications. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Guo, F., Mu, Y., Chen, Z., 2008. Efficient Batch Verification of Short Signatures for a Single-Signer Setting without Random Oracles, in: Matsuura, K., Fujisaki, E. (Eds.), Advances in Information and Computer Security: Third International Workshop on Security, IWSEC 2008, Kagawa, Japan, November 25-27, 2008. Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 49–63.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Intensive & Critical Care Nursing.

Blog post
Hamilton, K., 2017. Researchers Reveal The Multi-Dimensional Universe Of The Brain [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2001. Public Education: Meeting the Needs of Students With Limited English Proficiency (No. GAO-01-226). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Haxton, S.A., 2017. Student Risk Perception in the Undergraduate Teaching Laboratory (Doctoral dissertation). Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville, IL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Shear, M.D., Vogel, K.P., 2017. Seat at Le Cirque, and a Word With Trump, for $250,000. New York Times A20.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Gravitz, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Gravitz, 2014; Müller and Sheen, 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Müller and Sheen, 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Singh et al., 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleIntensive & Critical Care Nursing
AbbreviationIntensive Crit. Care Nurs.
ISSN (print)0964-3397
ScopeCritical Care

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