How to format your references using the Integrative & Comparative Biology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Integrative & Comparative Biology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Reichhardt T. 2000. Space researchers protest at “disruptive” export controls. Nature 404:321.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sundquist WI, Ullman KS. 2015. CELL BIOLOGY. An ESCRT to seal the envelope. Science 348:1314–15.
A journal article with 3 authors
Rapp RP, Shimizu N, Norman MD. 2003. Growth of early continental crust by partial melting of eclogite. Nature 425:605–9.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Waller RF, Keeling PJ, van Dooren GG, McFadden GI. 2003. Comment on “A green algal apicoplast ancestor.” Science 301:49; author reply 49.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Delgrossi L, Zhang T. 2012. Vehicle Safety Communications Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Panigrahi BK, Das S, Suganthan PN, Dash SS (Eds.). 2010. Swarm, Evolutionary, and Memetic Computing: First International Conference on Swarm, Evolutionary, and Memetic Computing, SEMCCO 2010, Chennai, India, December 16-18, 2010. Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Zuidema C, de Roo G. 2015. Making Sense of Decentralization: Coping with the Complexities of the Urban Environment. In: Fra.Paleo U, editor. Risk Governance: The Articulation of Hazard, Politics and Ecology Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands. p. 59–76.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Integrative & Comparative Biology.

Blog post
Fang J. 2014. Royal ferns are “living fossils,” unchanged since the JurassicIFLScience. (


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2009. Commercial Aviation: Airline Industry Contraction Due to Volatile Fuel Prices and Falling Demand Affects Airports, Passengers, and Federal Government Revenues ( No. GAO-09-393) Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Anderson PM. 2012. Persistent Genomic Consequences of Prenatal Nicotine Exposure Measured in Adolescent Rat Brain (Doctoral dissertation).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
O’sullivan ML. 2017. Trump Can Harness the Energy Boom. New York Times A27.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Reichhardt 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Reichhardt 2000; Sundquist and Ullman 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Sundquist and Ullman 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Waller et al. 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleIntegrative & Comparative Biology
AbbreviationIntegr. Comp. Biol.
ISSN (print)1540-7063
ISSN (online)1557-7023
ScopeAnimal Science and Zoology
Plant Science

Other styles