How to format your references using the Integrative & Comparative Biology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Integrative & Comparative Biology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Moore P. 2005. Amplifying the signal. Nature 435:236.
A journal article with 2 authors
Muoio DM, Newgard CB. 2014. Diabetes: The good in fat. Nature 516:49–50.
A journal article with 3 authors
Attardo A, Fitzgerald JE, Schnitzer MJ. 2015. Impermanence of dendritic spines in live adult CA1 hippocampus. Nature 523:592–96.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Roos CF, Chwalla M, Kim K, Riebe M, Blatt R. 2006. “Designer atoms” for quantum metrology. Nature 443:316–19.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
El-Reedy MA. 2016. Project Management in the Oil and Gas Industry Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Deutsch A, Parra RB de la, Boer RJ de, Diekmann O, Jagers P, Kisdi E, Kretzschmar M, Lansky P, Metz H (Eds.). 2008. Mathematical Modeling of Biological Systems, Volume II: Epidemiology, Evolution and Ecology,Immunology, Neural Systems and the Brain, and Innovative Mathematical Methods, Modeling and Simulation in Science, Engineering and Technology Boston, MA: Birkhäuser.
A chapter in an edited book
Ganov S, Killmar C, Khurshid S, Perry DE. 2009. Event Listener Analysis and Symbolic Execution for Testing GUI Applications. In: Breitman K, Cavalcanti A, editors. Formal Methods and Software Engineering: 11th International Conference on Formal Engineering Methods ICFEM 2009, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, December 9-12, 2009. Proceedings. Lecture Notes in Computer Science Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer. p. 69–87.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Integrative & Comparative Biology.

Blog post
Fang J. 2014. New Armor Makes Batteries Safe to SwallowIFLScience. (


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2000. Highway Funding: Problems With Highway Trust Fund Information Can Affect State Highway Funds ( No. RCED/AIMD-00-148) Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Spralja KP. 2014. The intersections of culture and business: An ethnographic study of multicultural second generation young entrepreneurs (Doctoral dissertation).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
CHRISTOPHER KELLY; Christopher Kelly is a fellow in ancient history at Pembroke College, Cambridge. 1990. Paganism Was Alive and Well. New York Times 743.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Moore 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Moore 2005; Muoio and Newgard 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Muoio and Newgard 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Roos et al. 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleIntegrative & Comparative Biology
AbbreviationIntegr. Comp. Biol.
ISSN (print)1540-7063
ISSN (online)1557-7023
ScopeAnimal Science and Zoology
Plant Science

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