How to format your references using the Information Technology & Tourism citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Information Technology & Tourism. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Brumfiel G (2003) US societies unite in plea for boost to research budgets. Nature 421:100
A journal article with 2 authors
Desai SA, Miller LH (2014) Malaria: Protein-export pathway illuminated. Nature 511:541–542
A journal article with 3 authors
Davidson EA, Trumbore SE, Amundson R (2000) Soil warming and organic carbon content. Nature 408:789–790
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Faham S, Watanabe A, Besserer GM, et al (2008) The crystal structure of a sodium galactose transporter reveals mechanistic insights into Na+/sugar symport. Science 321:810–814

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
DiGrado BD, Thorp GA (2007) The Aboveground Steel Storage Tank Handbook. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Oinas-Kukkonen H, Iivari N, Kuutti K, et al (eds) (2015) Nordic Contributions in IS Research: 6th Scandinavian Conference on Information Systems, SCIS 2015, Oulu, Finland, August 9-12, 2015, Proceedings. Springer International Publishing, Cham
A chapter in an edited book
Bodvarsson ÖB, Van den Berg H (2013) Who Immigrates? Theory and Evidence. In: Van den Berg H (ed) The Economics of Immigration: Theory and Policy. Springer, New York, NY, pp 79–107

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Information Technology & Tourism.

Blog post
Davis J (2015) Researchers Find That Prawns Could Help Protect Against Bilharzia. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2006) Media Contracts: Activities and Financial Obligations for Seven Federal Departments. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Valley MT (2010) Deciphering the function of granule cell interneurons in the mouse main olfactory bulb: Insights from adult neurogenesis and local-field potentials. Doctoral dissertation, Columbia University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow K (2000) Teachers Adding an H (for Hygiene) to the 3 R’s. New York Times B9

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Brumfiel 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Brumfiel 2003; Desai and Miller 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Desai and Miller 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Faham et al. 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleInformation Technology & Tourism
ISSN (print)1098-3058
ISSN (online)1943-4294
ScopeGeneral Computer Science
Social Sciences (miscellaneous)

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