How to format your references using the Information Technology & Tourism citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Information Technology & Tourism. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Vela C (2012) Turn Spain’s budget crisis into an opportunity. Nature 486:7
A journal article with 2 authors
Starr DA, Han M (2002) Role of ANC-1 in tethering nuclei to the actin cytoskeleton. Science 298:406–409
A journal article with 3 authors
Armbrecht I, Perfecto I, Vandermeer J (2004) Enigmatic biodiversity correlations: ant diversity responds to diverse resources. Science 304:284–286
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Yamanouchi M, Chiba D, Matsukura F, Ohno H (2004) Current-induced domain-wall switching in a ferromagnetic semiconductor structure. Nature 428:539–542

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
AIChE technical manual (1998) Dow’s Chemical Exposure Index Guide. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Luch A (ed) (2012) Molecular, Clinical and Environmental Toxicology: Volume 3: Environmental Toxicology. Springer, Basel
A chapter in an edited book
Dezhamkhooy M, Yazdi LP, Garazhian O (2015) All Our Findings Are Under Their Boots! The Monologue of Violence in Iranian Archaeology. In: González-Ruibal A, Moshenska G (eds) Ethics and the Archaeology of Violence. Springer, New York, NY, pp 51–70

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Information Technology & Tourism.

Blog post
Evans K (2017) Thieves Can Steal Your Fingerprints From Your Selfies. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1991) Chemical and Biological Warfare: Use of Collective Protection on Vehicles, Aircraft, and Ships. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Jin R (2017) Graph-Based Rhythm Interpretation in Optical Music Recognition. Doctoral dissertation, Indiana University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rojas R, Fitzsimmons EG (2016) Crane Collapse Kills Man on Busy Manhattan Block. New York Times A16

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Vela 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Starr and Han 2002; Vela 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Starr and Han 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Yamanouchi et al. 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleInformation Technology & Tourism
ISSN (print)1098-3058
ISSN (online)1943-4294
ScopeGeneral Computer Science
Social Sciences (miscellaneous)

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