How to format your references using the Information, Communication & Society citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Information, Communication & Society. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sassone-Corsi, P. (2002). Unique chromatin remodeling and transcriptional regulation in spermatogenesis. Science (New York, N.Y.), 296(5576), 2176–2178.
A journal article with 2 authors
Peter, I. S., & Davidson, E. H. (2011). A gene regulatory network controlling the embryonic specification of endoderm. Nature, 474(7353), 635–639.
A journal article with 3 authors
Zabow, G., Dodd, S. J., & Koretsky, A. P. (2015). Shape-changing magnetic assemblies as high-sensitivity NMR-readable nanoprobes. Nature, 520(7545), 73–77.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Ouyang, M., Huang, J. L., Cheung, C. L., & Lieber, C. M. (2001). Energy gaps in “metallic” single-walled carbon nanotubes. Science (New York, N.Y.), 292(5517), 702–705.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Murphy, D. B., & Davidson, M. W. (2012). Fundamentals of Light Microscopy and Electronic Imaging. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Barth, S., Murphy-Bokern, D., Kalinina, O., Taylor, G., & Jones, M. (Eds.). (2016). Perennial Biomass Crops for a Resource-Constrained World. Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Fairman, D., Chigas, D., McClintock, E., & Drager, N. (2012). Meeting Implementation Challenges. In D. Chigas, E. McClintock, & N. Drager (Eds.), Negotiating Public Health in a Globalized World: Global Health Diplomacy in Action (pp. 81–93). Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Information, Communication & Society.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, March 9). Microbes Turn Pee Into Electricity. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2012). National Mediation Board Mandates in the FAA Modernization and Reform Act of 2012 (GAO-12-835R). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Arendt, K. R. (2015). Symbiosis establishment and ecological effects of endohyphal bacteria on foliar fungi [Doctoral dissertation]. University of Arizona.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, C. (2013, July 28). Maybe Animals Just Need Quality Time With Friends. New York Times, A23B.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Sassone-Corsi, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Peter & Davidson, 2011; Sassone-Corsi, 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Peter & Davidson, 2011)
  • Three authors: (Zabow et al., 2015)
  • 6 or more authors: (Ouyang et al., 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleInformation, Communication & Society
AbbreviationInf. Commun. Soc.
ISSN (print)1369-118X
ISSN (online)1468-4462
ScopeLibrary and Information Sciences

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