How to format your references using the Information, Communication & Society citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Information, Communication & Society. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ricci, L. (2005). History of science: Dante’s insight into galilean invariance. Nature, 434(7034), 717.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kale, M. J., & Christopher, P. (2015). PHYSICS. Plasmons at the interface. Science (New York, N.Y.), 349(6248), 587–588.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bloss, T. A., Witze, E. S., & Rothman, J. H. (2003). Suppression of CED-3-independent apoptosis by mitochondrial betaNAC in Caenorhabditis elegans. Nature, 424(6952), 1066–1071.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
D’Oriano, C., Bertagnini, A., Cioni, R., & Pompilio, M. (2014). Identifying recycled ash in basaltic eruptions. Scientific Reports, 4, 5851.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Moir, I., & Seabridge, A. G. (2006). Military Avionics Systems. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Sellmyer, D., & Skomski, R. (Eds.). (2006). Advanced Magnetic Nanostructures. Boston, MA: Springer US.
A chapter in an edited book
Cliffe, O., De Vos, M., & Padget, J. (2007). Specifying and Reasoning About Multiple Institutions. In P. Noriega, J. Vázquez-Salceda, G. Boella, O. Boissier, V. Dignum, N. Fornara, & E. Matson (Eds.), Coordination, Organizations, Institutions, and Norms in Agent Systems II: AAMAS 2006 and ECAI 2006 International Workshops, COIN 2006 Hakodate, Japan, May 9, 2006 Riva del Garda, Italy, August 28, 2006. Revised Selected Papers (pp. 67–85). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Information, Communication & Society.

Blog post
Carpineti, A. (2017, March 6). Evidence Of An Ancient Mega-Flood On Mars. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2011). Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration: Additional Actions Needed to Strengthen Grants Management (No. GAO-12-158). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ramakrishnan, L. (2009). Multi-level adaptation for performability in dynamic web service workflows (Doctoral dissertation). Indiana University, Bloomington, IN.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Branch, J. (2016, October 25). Playing a Beautiful Game. New York Times, p. B8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Ricci, 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Kale & Christopher, 2015; Ricci, 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kale & Christopher, 2015)
  • Three authors: (Bloss, Witze, & Rothman, 2003)
  • 6 or more authors: (D’Oriano, Bertagnini, Cioni, & Pompilio, 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleInformation, Communication & Society
AbbreviationInf. Commun. Soc.
ISSN (print)1369-118X
ISSN (online)1468-4462
ScopeLibrary and Information Sciences

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