How to format your references using the Information, Communication & Society citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Information, Communication & Society. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Nelson, W. J. (2003). Adaptation of core mechanisms to generate cell polarity. Nature, 422(6933), 766–774.
A journal article with 2 authors
Salters, V. J. M., & Dick, H. J. B. (2002). Mineralogy of the mid-ocean-ridge basalt source from neodymium isotopic composition of abyssal peridotites. Nature, 418(6893), 68–72.
A journal article with 3 authors
Schuck, C., Pernice, W. H. P., & Tang, H. X. (2013). Waveguide integrated low noise NbTiN nanowire single-photon detectors with milli-Hz dark count rate. Scientific Reports, 3, 1893.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Willingale-Theune, J., Manaia, A., Gebhardt, P., De Lorenzi, R., & Haury, M. (2009). Science education. Introducing modern science into schools. Science (New York, N.Y.), 325(5944), 1077–1078.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Naini, F. B. (2011). Facial Aesthetics. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Kempken, F. (Ed.). (2013). Agricultural Applications (2nd ed. 2013, Vol. 11). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Lu, T., & Xin, F. (2014). Sound Radiation, Transmission of Orthogonally Rib-Stiffened Sandwich Structures. In F. Xin (Ed.), Vibro-Acoustics of Lightweight Sandwich Structures (pp. 225–288). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Information, Communication & Society.

Blog post
Luntz, S. (2014, November 5). Mysterious Stone Circles Found In The Middle East. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2002). Federal Student Aid: Additional Management Improvements Would Clarify Strategic Direction and Enhance Accountability (GAO-02-255). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Haneef, N. J. (2009). A synthesized conceptual framework for the design of user interfaces of interactive information products [Doctoral dissertation]. George Washington University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
CHARKES; Mary Jo, J., & Reporting, L. S. C. (2009, April 26). A Spring Surprise: Openings in Preschools. New York Times, WE1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Nelson, 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Nelson, 2003; Salters & Dick, 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Salters & Dick, 2002)
  • Three authors: (Schuck et al., 2013)
  • 6 or more authors: (Willingale-Theune et al., 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleInformation, Communication & Society
AbbreviationInf. Commun. Soc.
ISSN (print)1369-118X
ISSN (online)1468-4462
ScopeLibrary and Information Sciences

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