How to format your references using the Information & Management citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Information & Management. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
H. Haberland, Looking from both sides, Nature. 494 (2013) E1-2.
A journal article with 2 authors
M.B. Davis, R.G. Shaw, Range shifts and adaptive responses to Quaternary climate change, Science. 292 (2001) 673–679.
A journal article with 3 authors
P.D. Taylor, T. Day, G. Wild, Evolution of cooperation in a finite homogeneous graph, Nature. 447 (2007) 469–472.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
H. Brandstetter, J.S. Kim, M. Groll, R. Huber, Crystal structure of the tricorn protease reveals a protein disassembly line, Nature. 414 (2001) 466–470.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
A. Mitra, Fundamentals of Quality Control and Improvement, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2008.
An edited book
M. Étienne, ed., Companion Modelling: A Participatory Approach to Support Sustainable Development, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
Y. Gourhant, A. Gouta, V.D. Philip, Fair Usage and Capping for Providing Internet for All in Developing Countries, in: R. Popescu-Zeletin, K. Jonas, I.A. Rai, R. Glitho, A. Villafiorita (Eds.), E-Infrastructure and e-Services for Developing Countries: Third International ICST Conference, AFRICOMM 2011, Zanzibar, Tanzania, November 23-24, 2011, Revised Selected Papers, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2012: pp. 35–48.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Information & Management.

Blog post
J. O`Callaghan, New Horizons Performs Latest Maneuver On Journey To Distant Solar System Object, IFLScience. (2017). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Organizing the Federal Communications Commission for Greater Management and Regulatory Effectiveness, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1979.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
D.E. Milliken, Blood pressure measurement in the primary care provider setting: A project evaluating the blood pressure technique of nursing staff, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M.J. de la MERCED, Arconic Gives 3 Board Seats To Hedge Fund, Ending a Fight, New York Times. (2017) B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInformation & Management
ISSN (print)0378-7206
ScopeManagement Information Systems
Information Systems
Information Systems and Management

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