How to format your references using the Information & Management citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Information & Management. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
T.V. Padma, Developing solutions, Nature. 466 (2010) S16-7.
A journal article with 2 authors
M. Panning, B. Romanowicz, Inferences on flow at the base of Earth’s mantle based on seismic anisotropy, Science. 303 (2004) 351–353.
A journal article with 3 authors
K. Reinhardt, D.K. Dowling, E.H. Morrow, Medicine. Mitochondrial replacement, evolution, and the clinic, Science. 341 (2013) 1345–1346.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
T.J. Bergman, J.C. Beehner, D.L. Cheney, R.M. Seyfarth, Hierarchical classification by rank and kinship in baboons, Science. 302 (2003) 1234–1236.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
K.T. Mynbaev, Short-Memory Linear Processes and Econometric Applications, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2011.
An edited book
M. Estivalet, The Engineering of Sport 7: Vol. 2, Springer, Paris, 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
F. Stangenberg, R. Breitenbücher, O.T. Bruhns, D. Hartmann, R. Höffer, D. Kuhl, G. Meschke, Methodological Implementation, in: R. Breitenbücher, O.T. Bruhns, D. Hartmann, R. Höffer, D. Kuhl, G. Meschke (Eds.), Lifetime-Oriented Structural Design Concepts, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2009: pp. 365–652.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Information & Management.

Blog post
K. Evans, Seeing Is Not Believing: Our Brains Trust Its Own Generated Images More Than Real Ones, IFLScience. (2017). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Homeland Security: Efforts Under Way to Develop Enterprise Architecture, but Much Work Remains, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2004.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
D. Wilkins, The Value of the Semantic Differential to the Art Educator, Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University, 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
J. Ortved, Browsing for Denim. Or a Toothbrush, New York Times. (2017) D3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInformation & Management
ISSN (print)0378-7206
ScopeManagement Information Systems
Information Systems
Information Systems and Management

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