How to format your references using the Information & Management citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Information & Management. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
J. Lessler, Immunology. Charting the life-course epidemiology of influenza, Science. 346 (2014) 919–920.
A journal article with 2 authors
B.A.A. Weaver, D.W. Cleveland, Comment on “A centrosome-independent role for gamma-TuRC proteins in the spindle assembly checkpoint,” Science. 316 (2007) 982; author reply 982.
A journal article with 3 authors
D. Nakada, T.L. Saunders, S.J. Morrison, Lkb1 regulates cell cycle and energy metabolism in haematopoietic stem cells, Nature. 468 (2010) 653–658.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
P.K. Reardon, J. Seidlitz, S. Vandekar, S. Liu, R. Patel, M.T.M. Park, A. Alexander-Bloch, L.S. Clasen, J.D. Blumenthal, F.M. Lalonde, J.N. Giedd, R.C. Gur, R.E. Gur, J.P. Lerch, M.M. Chakravarty, T.D. Satterthwaite, R.T. Shinohara, A. Raznahan, Normative brain size variation and brain shape diversity in humans, Science. 360 (2018) 1222–1227.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
L. Mascia, Polymers in Industry from A-Z, Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany, 2011.
An edited book
J. Tatzelt, ed., Prion Proteins, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
J. Xie, Research on Complex Networks Evolution Model, in: D. Jin, S. Lin (Eds.), Advances in Computer Science and Information Engineering: Volume 1, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2012: pp. 29–33.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Information & Management.

Blog post
E. Andrew, Five Ways Science Can Help You Raise Healthy Children, IFLScience. (2015). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Consumer Health Informatics: Emerging Issues, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1996.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
J. Mickey, Random Linear Network Coding with Added Prefix Bits, Doctoral dissertation, University of Louisiana, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M. Paulson, Spacey Apologizes After Accusation of Misconduct, New York Times. (2017) A10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInformation & Management
ISSN (print)0378-7206
ScopeManagement Information Systems
Information Systems
Information Systems and Management

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