How to format your references using the Information & Communications Technology Law citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Information & Communications Technology Law. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gibson, G. (2005). Evolution. The synthesis and evolution of a supermodel. Science (New York, N.Y.), 307(5717), 1890–1891.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kang, T. M., & Hilgemann, D. W. (2004). Multiple transport modes of the cardiac Na+/Ca2+ exchanger. Nature, 427(6974), 544–548.
A journal article with 3 authors
Helle, S., Lummaa, V., & Jokela, J. (2002). Sons reduced maternal longevity in preindustrial humans. Science (New York, N.Y.), 296(5570), 1085.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Nemec, P., Altmann, J., Marhold, S., Burda, H., & Oelschlager, H. H. (2001). Neuroanatomy of magnetoreception: the superior colliculus involved in magnetic orientation in a mammal. Science (New York, N.Y.), 294(5541), 366–368.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Blevins, R. D. (2015). Formulas for Dynamics, Acoustics and Vibration. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Smith, W. R., & Stahel, P. F. (Eds.). (2014). Management of Musculoskeletal Injuries in the Trauma Patient. Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Belmonte, S. A., Mayorga, L. S., & Tomes, C. N. (2016). The Molecules of Sperm Exocytosis. In M. G. Buffone (Ed.), Sperm Acrosome Biogenesis and Function During Fertilization (pp. 71–92). Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Information & Communications Technology Law.

Blog post
Davis, J. (2016, August 8). Climate Scientists Expect Us To Miss The Paris Climate Agreement Targets. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1971). Criteria Needed for Measuring Technical Assistance Results and Contractor Performance (B-160789). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kim, B. G. (2010). Mercury-containing species and carbon dioxide adsorption studies on inorganic compounds using density functional theory [Doctoral dissertation]. University of Arizona.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Binder, S. (2017, February 10). A Game Plan for Senate Democrats. New York Times, A23.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Gibson, 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Gibson, 2005; Kang & Hilgemann, 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kang & Hilgemann, 2004)
  • Three authors: (Helle et al., 2002)
  • 6 or more authors: (Nemec et al., 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleInformation & Communications Technology Law
ISSN (print)1360-0834
ISSN (online)1469-8404
ScopeComputer Science Applications

Other styles