How to format your references using the Information & Communications Technology Law citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Information & Communications Technology Law. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Baker, M. (2012). Biorepositories: Building better biobanks. Nature, 486(7401), 141–146.
A journal article with 2 authors
Cruz, A., & Green, B. G. (2000). Thermal stimulation of taste. Nature, 403(6772), 889–892.
A journal article with 3 authors
Yamamoto, Y., Stock, D. W., & Jeffery, W. R. (2004). Hedgehog signalling controls eye degeneration in blind cavefish. Nature, 431(7010), 844–847.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Jaramillo, T. F., Jørgensen, K. P., Bonde, J., Nielsen, J. H., Horch, S., & Chorkendorff, I. (2007). Identification of active edge sites for electrochemical H2 evolution from MoS2 nanocatalysts. Science (New York, N.Y.), 317(5834), 100–102.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Svrcek, W. Y., Mahoney, D. P., & Young, B. R. (2007). A Real-Time Approach to Process Control. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Apolloni, B., Marinaro, M., Nicosia, G., & Tagliaferri, R. (Eds.). (2006). Neural Nets: 16th Italian Workshop on Neural Nets, WIRN 2005, and International Workshop on Natural and Artificial Immune Systems, NAIS 2005, Vietri sul Mare, Italy, June 8-11, 2005, Revised Selected Papers (Vol. 3931). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Fallon, R. (2015). Celebgate: Two Methodological Approaches to the 2014 Celebrity Photo Hacks. In T. Tiropanis, A. Vakali, L. Sartori, & P. Burnap (Eds.), Internet Science: Second International Conference, INSCI 2015, Brussels, Belgium, May 27-29, 2015, Proceedings (pp. 49–60). Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Information & Communications Technology Law.

Blog post
Andrews, R. (2016, September 7). What Caused Oklahoma’s Powerful 5.6M Earthquake? IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1980). Need for Improved Management and Increased Sharing of Computer Resources at the San Antonio Data Services Center (FGMSD-80-82). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Adams, C. A. (2013). Impact of water management and agronomic practices on the performance of insecticide seed treatments against rice water weevil, Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus Kuschel, in Mississippi rice [Doctoral dissertation]. Mississippi State University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse, L. (2007, October 4). Justices Seem to Support How State Selects Judges. New York Times, B3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Baker, 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Baker, 2012; Cruz & Green, 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Cruz & Green, 2000)
  • Three authors: (Yamamoto et al., 2004)
  • 6 or more authors: (Jaramillo et al., 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleInformation & Communications Technology Law
ISSN (print)1360-0834
ISSN (online)1469-8404
ScopeComputer Science Applications

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