How to format your references using the Infectious Disease Clinics of North America citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Infectious Disease Clinics of North America (IDC). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kane G. Particle physics is at a turning point. Nature 2011;480(7378):415.
A journal article with 2 authors
Karsenti E., Vernos I. The mitotic spindle: a self-made machine. Science 2001;294(5542):543–7.
A journal article with 3 authors
Morford SL., Houlton BZ., Dahlgren RA. Increased forest ecosystem carbon and nitrogen storage from nitrogen rich bedrock. Nature 2011;477(7362):78–81.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Meyers D., Mukherjee S., Cheng J-G., et al. Zhang-Rice physics and anomalous copper states in A-site ordered perovskites. Sci Rep 2013;3:1834.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Rabe JL., Martorana RJ. Alts Democratized. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc; 2014.
An edited book
Kamkin A., Lozinsky I. Mechanically Gated Channels and their Regulation. vol. 6. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
Gregorcyk SG. Fecal Incontinence. In: Zimmern PE, Norton PA, Haab F et al., editors. Vaginal Surgery for Incontinence and Prolapse. London: Springer; 2006. p. 55–63.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Infectious Disease Clinics of North America.

Blog post
Andrew E. Mind-Controlling Wasps Enslave Zombie Spiders To Build Them A Perfect Nest. IFLScience. Available at: Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. District of Columbia: D.C. Public Schools Inappropriately Used Gas Utility Contract for Renovations. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2001.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mocilnikar GE. Playing with movies: An examination of the interactions between music and film in “Fantasie for horn and film.” Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA, 2011.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Williams J. Baldwin Burns Strong. New York Times 2017:BR4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleInfectious Disease Clinics of North America
AbbreviationInfect. Dis. Clin. North Am.
ISSN (print)0891-5520
ISSN (online)1557-9824
ScopeInfectious Diseases
Microbiology (medical)

Other styles