How to format your references using the Infectious Disease Clinics of North America citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Infectious Disease Clinics of North America (IDC). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hwang WC. Journal club. A structural biologist has great expectations for llamas’ small antibodies. Nature 2009;459(7245):303.
A journal article with 2 authors
Barton RA., Harvey PH. Mosaic evolution of brain structure in mammals. Nature 2000;405(6790):1055–8.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hammarström P., Schneider F., Kelly JW. Trans-suppression of misfolding in an amyloid disease. Science 2001;293(5539):2459–62.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Nair DT., Johnson RE., Prakash L., et al. Rev1 employs a novel mechanism of DNA synthesis using a protein template. Science 2005;309(5744):2219–22.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
ASAE. 7 Measures of Success. Washington, DC: ASAE: The Center for Association Leadership; 2013.
An edited book
Distante C., Battiato S., Cavallaro A. Video Analytics for Audience Measurement: First International Workshop, VAAM 2014, Stockholm, Sweden, August 24, 2014. Revised Selected Papers. vol. 8811. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
Feng X., Lau FCM., Gao D. Cache Allocation in CDN: An Evolutionary Game Generalized Particle Model. In: Zhou J, editor. Complex Sciences: First International Conference, Complex 2009, Shanghai, China, February 23-25, 2009, Revised Papers, Part 2. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2009. p. 1226–37.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Infectious Disease Clinics of North America.

Blog post
Luntz S. Amateur Astronomer Reveals Star Spots On Pulsar’s Companion. IFLScience. Available at: Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Proposal for Replacement of Indian Health Service Hospital. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1978.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Freund SH. The Relationship of Academic Courses to Skills Required Of Automobile Repair Technicians. Doctoral dissertation, Lindenwood University, St. Charles, MO, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
Kelly C. Texas Film: It’s Not Just About Slackers Anymore. New York Times 2013:A27B.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleInfectious Disease Clinics of North America
AbbreviationInfect. Dis. Clin. North Am.
ISSN (print)0891-5520
ISSN (online)1557-9824
ScopeInfectious Diseases
Microbiology (medical)

Other styles