How to format your references using the Infectious Disease Clinics of North America citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Infectious Disease Clinics of North America (IDC). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gasse F. Paleoclimate. Kilimanjaro’s secrets revealed. Science 2002;298(5593):548–9.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lubchenco J., Sutley N. Science policy. Proposed U.S. policy for ocean, coast, and Great Lakes stewardship. Science 2010;328(5985):1485–6.
A journal article with 3 authors
Xiao Y., Wang Y., Felleman DJ. A spatially organized representation of colour in macaque cortical area V2. Nature 2003;421(6922):535–9.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Butterfield GL., Lajoie MJ., Gustafson HH., et al. Evolution of a designed protein assembly encapsulating its own RNA genome. Nature 2017;552(7685):415–20.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Nógrádi M. Stereoselective Synthesis. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH; 2007.
An edited book
Banichuk NV. Structural Optimization with Uncertainties. vol. 162. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
Saravanakumar G., Kim WJ. Stimuli-Responsive Polymeric Nanocarriers as Promising Drug and Gene Delivery Systems. In: Prokop A, Iwasaki Y, and Harada A, editors. Intracellular Delivery II: Fundamentals and Applications. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2014. p. 55–91.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Infectious Disease Clinics of North America.

Blog post
Luntz S. Italy’s Volcanic Rocks Like Reinforced Roman Concrete. IFLScience. Available at: Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Computer Buys: Air Force Logistics Modernization Program Should Comply With Brooks Act. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1986.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Doddick S. Noncontact 2D Plethysmography: A non-invasive technique for monitoring dynamic trends in a respiratory system. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Cowen T. A U.S. Middle-Class Revival, Powered by China. New York Times 2016:BU6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleInfectious Disease Clinics of North America
AbbreviationInfect. Dis. Clin. North Am.
ISSN (print)0891-5520
ISSN (online)1557-9824
ScopeInfectious Diseases
Microbiology (medical)

Other styles