How to format your references using the Infectious Disease Clinics of North America citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Infectious Disease Clinics of North America (IDC). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sunda WG. Oceans. Iron and the carbon pump. Science 2010;327(5966):654–5.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hawkesworth CJ., Kemp AIS. Evolution of the continental crust. Nature 2006;443(7113):811–7.
A journal article with 3 authors
Royer DL., Osborne CP., Beerling DJ. Carbon loss by deciduous trees in a CO2-rich ancient polar environment. Nature 2003;424(6944):60–2.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Saikawa Y., Hashimoto K., Nakata M., et al. Pigment chemistry: the red sweat of the hippopotamus. Nature 2004;429(6990):363.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bar-Eli M., Plessner H., Raab M. Judgement, Decision Making and Success in Sport. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2011.
An edited book
Chen JX. Foundations of 3D Graphics Programming: Using JOGL and Java3D. London: Springer; 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
Colledani M., Matta A., Tolio T. Performance evaluation of production lines with finite buffer capacity producing two different products. In: Liberopoulos G, Papadopoulos CT, Tan B et al., editors. Stochastic Modeling of Manufacturing Systems: Advances in Design, Performance Evaluation, and Control Issues. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2006. p. 77–97.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Infectious Disease Clinics of North America.

Blog post
Andrew E. Astronauts Spot Mysterious Sprites From The International Space Station. IFLScience. Available at: Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Outlook for Expanding the Federal Research in Progress System. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1984.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mitra A. Sigma Factor N: A Novel Regulator of Acid Resistance and Locus of Enterocyte Effacement in Escherichia coli O157:H7. Doctoral dissertation, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
(nyt) SK. World Briefing | Europe: Ukraine: Former Aide Cites Corruption. New York Times 2005:A11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleInfectious Disease Clinics of North America
AbbreviationInfect. Dis. Clin. North Am.
ISSN (print)0891-5520
ISSN (online)1557-9824
ScopeInfectious Diseases
Microbiology (medical)

Other styles