How to format your references using the Infection, Disease & Health citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Infection, Disease & Health. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Mézard M. Computer science. Where are the exemplars? Science 2007;315:949–51.
A journal article with 2 authors
Treguer P, Pondaven P. Global change. Silica control of carbon dioxide. Nature 2000;406:358–9.
A journal article with 3 authors
Chiappe LM, Salgado L, Coria RA. Embryonic skulls of titanosaur sauropod dinosaurs. Science 2001;293:2444–6.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Stohr J, Samant MG, Luning J, Callegari AC, Chaudhari P, Doyle JP, et al. Liquid crystal alignment on carbonaceous surfaces with orientational order. Science 2001;292:2299–302.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Marteel-Parrish AE, Abraham MA. Green Chemistry and Engineering. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc; 2013.
An edited book
Madsen SJ, editor. Optical Methods and Instrumentation in Brain Imaging and Therapy. vol. 3. New York, NY: Springer; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
Yadav T, Mungray AA, Mungray AK. Fabricated Nanoparticles: Current Status and Potential Phytotoxic Threats. In: Whitacre DM, editor. Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology volume: With Cumulative and Comprehensive Index Subjects Covered Volumes 221-230, Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014, p. 83–110.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Infection, Disease & Health.

Blog post
O`Callaghan J. This “Hedgehog” Robot Could Hop And Tumble Over Asteroids And Comets. IFLScience 2015. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Year 2000 Computing Crisis: Leadership Needed to Collect and Disseminate Critical Biomedical Equipment Information. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1998.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mendoza-Williams J. Road to success: The experiences of academically successful graduation-bound African American males. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach, 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
Vecsey G. Back-Scratching With a Global Reach. New York Times 2010:B19.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInfection, Disease & Health
ISSN (print)2468-0451
ScopeInfectious Diseases
Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

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