How to format your references using the Infection, Disease & Health citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Infection, Disease & Health. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Linsky JL. Astronomy. Voyagers of discovery. Science 2011;334:1647–8.
A journal article with 2 authors
Maheswaran S, Haber DA. Cell fate: Transition loses its invasive edge. Nature 2015;527:452–3.
A journal article with 3 authors
Schwartz JH, Tattersall I, Chi Z. Comment on “A complete skull from Dmanisi, Georgia, and the evolutionary biology of early Homo.” Science 2014;344:360.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Strecker KE, Partridge GB, Truscott AG, Hulet RG. Formation and propagation of matter-wave soliton trains. Nature 2002;417:150–3.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Gywat O, Krenner HJ, Berezovsky J. Spins in Optically Active Quantum Dots. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2009.
An edited book
Gu Q, Hell P, Yang B, editors. Algorithmic Aspects in Information and Management: 10th International Conference, AAIM 2014, Vancouver, BC, Canada, July 8-11, 2014. Proceedings. vol. 8546. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
Nedoma J, Ramík J. Linear programming with set coefficients. In: Nedoma J, Ramík J, Rohn J, Zimmermann K, editors. Linear Optimization Problems with Inexact Data, Boston, MA: Springer US; 2006, p. 101–16.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Infection, Disease & Health.

Blog post
Andrew E. Insect Diet May Have Led To Bigger Human Brains. IFLScience 2014. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. National Science Foundation: Better Use of Existing Resources Could Improve Program Administration. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1994.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Israel JM. Student Extracurricular Participation, Student Achievement, and School Perception: an Elementary School Perspective. Doctoral dissertation. Lindenwood University, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly C. The Literary Journal And the Small Press Live On, in Austin. New York Times 2013:A31B.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInfection, Disease & Health
ISSN (print)2468-0451
ScopeInfectious Diseases
Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

Other styles