How to format your references using the Infection Control & Hospital Epidemiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Infection Control & Hospital Epidemiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lake JA. Lynn Margulis (1938-2011). Nature. 2011;480(7378):458.
A journal article with 2 authors
Brongersma ML, Shalaev VM. Applied physics. The case for plasmonics. Science. 2010;328(5977):440-441.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gill DL, Spassova MA, Soboloff J. Signal transduction. Calcium entry signals--trickles and torrents. Science. 2006;313(5784):183-184.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Liu B, Xie W, Li H, et al. Surrounding sensitive electronic properties of Bi₂Te₃ nanoplates-potential sensing applications of topological insulators. Sci Rep. 2014;4:4639.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Langlois P. Simulation of Complex Systems in GIS. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2013.
An edited book
Lockshin RA, ed. The Joy of Science: An Examination of How Scientists Ask and Answer Questions Using the Story of Evolution as a Paradigm. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2007.
A chapter in an edited book
Castro FA, Silva Santos CMP, Palma JMLM. Parallelisation of the CFD Code of a CFD-NWP Coupled System for the Simulation of Atmospheric Flows over Complex Terrain. In: Palma JMLM, Amestoy PR, Daydé M, Mattoso M, Lopes JC, eds. High Performance Computing for Computational Science - VECPAR 2008: 8th International Conference, Toulouse, France, June 24-27, 2008. Revised Selected Papers. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2008:27-38.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Infection Control & Hospital Epidemiology.

Blog post
Andrew E. Mining Conquistadors Caused Air Pollution 200 Years Before The Industrial Revolution. IFLScience. February 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Aviation Safety: Targeting and Training of FAA’s Safety Inspector Workforce. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1996.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Accortt EE. Frontal alpha electroencephalography (EEG) asymmetry as a risk factor for pre-menstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD); a psychophysiological and family history approach. 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly S. Be of Good Fear. New York Times. November 14, 1993:745.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,1.
This sentence cites four references 1,1,1,1.

About the journal

Full journal titleInfection Control & Hospital Epidemiology
AbbreviationInfect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol.
ISSN (print)0899-823X
ISSN (online)1559-6834
Infectious Diseases
Microbiology (medical)

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