How to format your references using the Infection Control & Hospital Epidemiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Infection Control & Hospital Epidemiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Vastag B. Assembly work. Nature. 2008;453(7193):422-423.
A journal article with 2 authors
Feldl N, Bilham R. Great Himalayan earthquakes and the Tibetan plateau. Nature. 2006;444(7116):165-170.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gerstner W, Sprekeler H, Deco G. Theory and simulation in neuroscience. Science. 2012;338(6103):60-65.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Hatakeyama T, Dai P, Harada Y, et al. Connexin43 functions as a novel interacting partner of heat shock cognate protein 70. Sci Rep. 2013;3:2719.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Schwarz DR. Reading the European Novel to 1900. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2014.
An edited book
Hofmann-Wellenhof B. Physical Geodesy. (Moritz H, ed.). Springer; 2005.
A chapter in an edited book
Goto Y, Shibata K. Emergence of Higher Exploration in Reinforcement Learning Using a Chaotic Neural Network. In: Hirose A, Ozawa S, Doya K, Ikeda K, Lee M, Liu D, eds. Neural Information Processing: 23rd International Conference, ICONIP 2016, Kyoto, Japan, October 16–21, 2016, Proceedings, Part I. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer International Publishing; 2016:40-48.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Infection Control & Hospital Epidemiology.

Blog post
Andrew E. Many Bats Hate Long Commutes – Here’s How To Help Them. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Need To Improve Policies and Procedures for Approving Grants Under the Emergency School Assistance Program. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1971.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Winkelhake B. Verbal argumentativeness: A study of retail store managers. Published online 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Brantley B. You Only Turn 40 One Time. New York Times. January 9, 2017:C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleInfection Control & Hospital Epidemiology
AbbreviationInfect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol.
ISSN (print)0899-823X
ISSN (online)1559-6834
Infectious Diseases
Microbiology (medical)

Other styles