How to format your references using the Indian Journal of Otolaryngology and Head & Neck Surgery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Indian Journal of Otolaryngology and Head & Neck Surgery. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Friedman JM (2000) Obesity in the new millennium. Nature 404:632–634
A journal article with 2 authors
Klenk H-D, Becker S (2015) VACCINES. Ebola virus vaccines--preparing for the unexpected. Science 349:693–694
A journal article with 3 authors
Reinhardt K, Dowling DK, Morrow EH (2013) Medicine. Mitochondrial replacement, evolution, and the clinic. Science 341:1345–1346
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Strano MS, Dyke CA, Usrey ML, et al (2003) Electronic structure control of single-walled carbon nanotube functionalization. Science 301:1519–1522

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bliesner DM (2006) Establishing a CGMP Laboratory Audit System. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Kearns AE, Wermers RA (2016) Hyperparathyroidism: A Clinical Casebook, 1st ed. 2016. Springer International Publishing, Cham
A chapter in an edited book
Backhaus UM (2012) Wilhelm Roepke’s Emphasis on the Local Community. In: Backhaus JG (ed) Two Centuries of Local Autonomy. Springer, New York, NY, pp 29–40

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Indian Journal of Otolaryngology and Head & Neck Surgery.

Blog post
Hamilton K (2015) This Is What It Would Look Like If A Huge Asteroid Hit The Earth. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1990) Preliminary Information on the Federal Government’s Response to Recent Natural Disasters. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Nersisyan HA (2017) Armenian American Student Perceptions of Campus Climate: Examining the Conditions That Support or Inhibit Their College Experience. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse L (2008) Justices Shield Medical Devices From Lawsuits. New York Times A1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIndian Journal of Otolaryngology and Head & Neck Surgery
AbbreviationIndian J. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg.
ISSN (print)2231-3796
ISSN (online)0973-7707

Other styles