How to format your references using the Indian Journal of Otolaryngology and Head & Neck Surgery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Indian Journal of Otolaryngology and Head & Neck Surgery. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kitano H (2003) Cancer robustness: tumour tactics. Nature 426:125
A journal article with 2 authors
Poulain AJ, Barkay T (2013) Environmental science. Cracking the mercury methylation code. Science 339:1280–1281
A journal article with 3 authors
Topper TP, Holmer LE, Caron J-B (2014) Brachiopods hitching a ride: an early case of commensalism in the middle Cambrian Burgess Shale. Sci Rep 4:6704
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Bushnell DA, Westover KD, Davis RE, Kornberg RD (2004) Structural basis of transcription: an RNA polymerase II-TFIIB cocrystal at 4.5 Angstroms. Science 303:983–988

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Robson Wright M (2005) An Introduction to Chemical Kinetics. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Mathieson C (2016) Sea Narratives: Cultural Responses to the Sea, 1600–Present. Palgrave Macmillan UK, London
A chapter in an edited book
de Meatza I, Miguel O, Cendoya I, et al (2015) GREENLION Project: Advanced Manufacturing Processes for Low Cost Greener Li-Ion Batteries. In: Briec E, Müller B (eds) Electric Vehicle Batteries: Moving from Research towards Innovation: Reports of the PPP European Green Vehicles Initiative. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 45–60

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Indian Journal of Otolaryngology and Head & Neck Surgery.

Blog post
Andrew E (2014) Cocoa’s Flavanols Reverse Age-Related Memory Decline. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2008) Commercial Drivers: Certification Process for Drivers with Serious Medical Conditions. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bhandari S (2017) The Role of System of Systems in Additive Manufacturing. Doctoral dissertation, Mississippi State University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Montague J (2017) Caution: Team Under Construction. New York Times D1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIndian Journal of Otolaryngology and Head & Neck Surgery
AbbreviationIndian J. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg.
ISSN (print)2231-3796
ISSN (online)0973-7707

Other styles