How to format your references using the Immunity & Ageing citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Immunity & Ageing. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Lenski RE. Genetics and evolution. Come fly, and leave the baggage behind. Science. 2001;294:533–4.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Tamaru H, Selker EU. A histone H3 methyltransferase controls DNA methylation in Neurospora crassa. Nature. 2001;414:277–83.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Leung AKW, Nagai K, Li J. Structure of the spliceosomal U4 snRNP core domain and its implication for snRNP biogenesis. Nature. 2011;473:536–9.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Ben-Zvi D, Shilo B-Z, Fainsod A, Barkai N. Scaling of the BMP activation gradient in Xenopus embryos. Nature. 2008;453:1205–11.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Speight JG, Singh K. Environmental Management of Energy from Biofuels and Biofeedstocks. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2014.
An edited book
1. Schulz M, Paul A, editors. Integrated Analysis of Interglacial Climate Dynamics (INTERDYNAMIC). Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Renna P, Argoneto P. Models for Coalition Management. In: Renna P, editor. Innovative Tools for Business Coalitions in B2B Applications: How Negotiation, Auction and Game Theory Can Support Small- and Medium-sized Business in E-business. London: Springer; 2011. p. 83–98.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Immunity & Ageing.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. Activists Misuse Open Records Requests To Harass Researchers. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Air Traffic Control: Status of FAA’s Plans to Close and Contract Out Low-Activity Towers. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1994 Sep. Report No.: RCED-94-265.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Manalo JB. Ascend Physical Therapy: A Private Practice Clinic for the Next Level [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Davey M, Walsh MW. Detroit Reaches Deal With Creditor, as Others Object to Bankruptcy Plans. New York Times. 2014 Sep 16;A17.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleImmunity & Ageing
AbbreviationImmun. Ageing
ISSN (online)1742-4933
ScopeAgeing
Immunology

Other styles