How to format your references using the Immigrants & Minorities citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Immigrants & Minorities. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Loubere, P. “Marine Control of Biological Production in the Eastern Equatorial Pacific Ocean.” Nature 406, no. 6795 (August 3, 2000): 497–500.
A journal article with 2 authors
Berkman, Michael B., and Eric Plutzer. “Science Education. Defeating Creationism in the Courtroom, but Not in the Classroom.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 331, no. 6016 (January 28, 2011): 404–5.
A journal article with 3 authors
Labrosse, S., J. W. Hernlund, and N. Coltice. “A Crystallizing Dense Magma Ocean at the Base of the Earth’s Mantle.” Nature 450, no. 7171 (December 6, 2007): 866–69.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Tumlinson, J., C. Thom, J. K. Werk, J. X. Prochaska, T. M. Tripp, D. H. Weinberg, M. S. Peeples, et al. “The Large, Oxygen-Rich Halos of Star-Forming Galaxies Are a Major Reservoir of Galactic Metals.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 334, no. 6058 (November 18, 2011): 948–52.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Rahman, Rehab O. Abdel, Ravil Z. Rakhimov, Nailia R. Rakhimova, and Michael I. Ojovan. Cementitious Materials for Nuclear Waste Immobilization. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2014.
An edited book
Zourob, Mohammed, and Akhlesh Lakhtakia, eds. Optical Guided-Wave Chemical and Biosensors I. Vol. 7. Springer Series on Chemical Sensors and Biosensors, Methods and Applications. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
Geweniger, Verena, and Alexander Bohlander. “Pilates as Preventative Exercise: Foundations.” In Pilates − A Teachers’ Manual: Exercises with Mats and Equipment for Prevention and Rehabilitation, edited by Alexander Bohlander, 17–55. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2014.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Immigrants & Minorities.

Blog post
Luntz, Stephen. “3D Printed Cast Speeds Bone Recovery Using Ultrasound.” IFLScience. IFLScience, April 28, 2014.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. “School Meal Programs: Few Outbreaks of Foodborne Illness Reported.” Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, February 22, 2000.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Vundavilli, Ravindra. “Bubble Removal in Microfluidic Devices Using Nanofibrous Membranes.” Doctoral dissertation, Southern Illinois University, 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
Schwirtz, Michael. “Mayor Unveiling Proposal To Close Rikers Jail Complex.” New York Times, June 22, 2017.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text

About the journal

Full journal titleImmigrants & Minorities
AbbreviationImmigr. Minor.
ISSN (print)0261-9288
ISSN (online)1744-0521

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