How to format your references using the Immigrants & Minorities citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Immigrants & Minorities. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Finlay, Bland J. “Global Dispersal of Free-Living Microbial Eukaryote Species.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 296, no. 5570 (May 10, 2002): 1061–63.
A journal article with 2 authors
Vigevani, Luisa, and Juan Valcárcel. “Molecular Biology. A Splicing Magic Bullet.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 345, no. 6197 (August 8, 2014): 624–25.
A journal article with 3 authors
Turk, Matthew J., Tom Abel, and Brian O’Shea. “The Formation of Population III Binaries from Cosmological Initial Conditions.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 325, no. 5940 (July 31, 2009): 601–5.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
An, Jihwan, Joong Sun Park, Ai Leen Koh, Hark B. Lee, Hee Joon Jung, Joop Schoonman, Robert Sinclair, Turgut M. Gür, and Fritz B. Prinz. “Atomic Scale Verification of Oxide-Ion Vacancy Distribution near a Single Grain Boundary in YSZ.” Scientific Reports 3 (2013): 2680.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bojowald, Martin. The Universe: A View from Classical and Quantum Gravity. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 2012.
An edited book
Rojas, Orlando J., ed. Cellulose Chemistry and Properties: Fibers, Nanocelluloses and Advanced Materials. 1st ed. 2016. Vol. 271. Advances in Polymer Science. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Weng, Miaowei. “‘Franco’s Children’: Childhood Memory as National Allegory.” In Childhood and Nation: Interdisciplinary Engagements, edited by Zsuzsa Millei and Robert Imre, 53–71. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan US, 2016.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Immigrants & Minorities.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. “Researchers Are Developing A Portable HIV DNA Test.” IFLScience. IFLScience, June 6, 2014.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. “Highway Safety: Federal and State Efforts to Address Rural Road Safety Challenges.” Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, May 28, 2004.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Anthony, Peter John. “Determining Courses of Action for Educational Leaders to Achieve Adequate Yearly Progress.” Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix, 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, George. “In Showalter, Orioles Have a Guy Who Never Misses a Trick.” New York Times, April 13, 2011.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text

About the journal

Full journal titleImmigrants & Minorities
AbbreviationImmigr. Minor.
ISSN (print)0261-9288
ISSN (online)1744-0521

Other styles