How to format your references using the Immigrants & Minorities citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Immigrants & Minorities. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sur, Mriganka. “Breathing Life into Biology.” Nature 436, no. 7050 (July 28, 2005): 487.
A journal article with 2 authors
Prlic, Martin, and Michael J. Bevan. “Immunology. An Antibody Paradox, Resolved.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 311, no. 5769 (March 31, 2006): 1875–76.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bala, Avinash D. S., Matthew W. Spitzer, and Terry T. Takahashi. “Prediction of Auditory Spatial Acuity from Neural Images on the Owl’s Auditory Space Map.” Nature 424, no. 6950 (August 14, 2003): 771–74.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Lim, Byungkwon, Majiong Jiang, Pedro H. C. Camargo, Eun Chul Cho, Jing Tao, Xianmao Lu, Yimei Zhu, and Younan Xia. “Pd-Pt Bimetallic Nanodendrites with High Activity for Oxygen Reduction.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 324, no. 5932 (June 5, 2009): 1302–5.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Rees, Hedley. Supply Chain Management in the Drug Industry. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2011.
An edited book
Nguyen, Ngoc Thanh, Boonwat Attachoo, Bogdan Trawiński, and Kulwadee Somboonviwat, eds. Intelligent Information and Database Systems: 6th Asian Conference, ACIIDS 2014, Bangkok, Thailand, April 7-9, 2014, Proceedings, Part I. Vol. 8397. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
Takahashi, Naoki, and Dushyant V. Sahani. “CT and MRI Features.” In Autoimmune (IgG4-Related) Pancreatitis and Cholangitis, edited by Michael J. Levy and Suresh T. Chari, 61–68. New York, NY: Springer, 2013.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Immigrants & Minorities.

Blog post
Andrew, Danielle. “60% Of Primate Species Now Threatened With Extinction, Says Major New Study.” IFLScience. IFLScience, January 18, 2017.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. “Digital Television Transition: Implementation of the Converter Box Subsidy Program Is Under Way, but Preparedness to Manage an Increase in Subsidy Demand Is Unclear.” Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, September 16, 2008.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Baker, Bryann Renee. “Schizophrenia-Spectrum Behavior and Peer Responses to Individuals with Social Anhedonia.” Doctoral dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Bernstein, Jacob, Bee-Shyuan Chang, Mary Billard, Alex Williams, Ruth La Ferla, Laura M. Holson, and John Harney. “When The Power Came Back, So Did the Crowds.” New York Times, November 8, 2012.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text

About the journal

Full journal titleImmigrants & Minorities
AbbreviationImmigr. Minor.
ISSN (print)0261-9288
ISSN (online)1744-0521

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