How to format your references using the Immigrants & Minorities citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Immigrants & Minorities. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Wible, Brad. “Rio+20. Science for Sustainable Development.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 336, no. 6087 (June 15, 2012): 1396.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lee, Seung Chul, and Sang Joon Lee. “Uptake of Liquid from Wet Surfaces by the Brush-Tipped Proboscis of a Butterfly.” Scientific Reports 4 (November 6, 2014): 6934.
A journal article with 3 authors
Merritt, Jeremy M., Vladimir E. Bondybey, and Michael C. Heaven. “Beryllium Dimer--Caught in the Act of Bonding.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 324, no. 5934 (June 19, 2009): 1548–51.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Ney, A., C. Pampuch, R. Koch, and K. H. Ploog. “Programmable Computing with a Single Magnetoresistive Element.” Nature 425, no. 6957 (October 2, 2003): 485–87.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sugirtharajah, R. S. Exploring Postcolonial Biblical Criticism. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell, 2011.
An edited book
Thorpe, Holly, and Rebecca Olive, eds. Women in Action Sport Cultures: Identity, Politics and Experience. Global Culture and Sport Series. London: Palgrave Macmillan UK, 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Tomalty, Ray, and Alan Mallach. “Differences in Urban Form and Transportation Systems.” In America’s Urban Future: Lessons from North of the Border, edited by Alan Mallach, 71–98. Washington, DC: Island Press/Center for Resource Economics, 2015.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Immigrants & Minorities.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. “New Theory Suggests Parallel Universes Interact With And Affect Our Own Universe.” IFLScience. IFLScience, November 4, 2014.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. “Airport Funding: FAA’s and Industry’s Cost Estimates for Airport Development.” Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, March 23, 2017.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Michaels, Jay L. “Changing Cooperation to Competition Disrupts Attitudes and Valence: First Test of a Dynamical Model.” Doctoral dissertation, Florida Atlantic University, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kishkovsky, Sophia. “A Festival in Red Square For the End of Summer.” New York Times, August 21, 2011.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text

About the journal

Full journal titleImmigrants & Minorities
AbbreviationImmigr. Minor.
ISSN (print)0261-9288
ISSN (online)1744-0521

Other styles