How to format your references using the IET Computers & Digital Techniques citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for IET Computers & Digital Techniques. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Irion, R.: ‘AAS HIGH-ENERGY ASTROPHYSICS DIVISION: X-rays Hit the Spot for Astrophysicists’Science, 2000, 290, (5498), pp. 1884–1885.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ngai, J.T., Srivastava, D.S.: ‘Predators accelerate nutrient cycling in a bromeliad ecosystem’Science, 2006, 314, (5801), p. 963.
A journal article with 3 authors
Jankowski, P., McKellar, A.R.W., Szalewicz, K.: ‘Theory untangles the high-resolution infrared spectrum of the ortho-H2-CO van der Waals complex’Science, 2012, 336, (6085), pp. 1147–1150.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Bryant, Z., Stone, M.D., Gore, J., Smith, S.B., Cozzarelli, N.R., Bustamante, C.: ‘Structural transitions and elasticity from torque measurements on DNA’Nature, 2003, 424, (6946), pp. 338–341.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Adams, F., Aizawa, K.: ‘The Bounds of Cognition’ (Wiley-Blackwell, 2010)
An edited book
Kim, T.-H., Adeli, H., Grosky, W.I., et al. (Eds.): ‘Multimedia, Computer Graphics and Broadcasting: International Conference, MulGraB 2011, Held as Part of the Future Generation Information Technology Conference, FGIT 2011, in Conjunction with GDC 2011, Jeju Island, Korea, December 8-10, 2011. Proceedings, Part II’ (Springer, 2011)
A chapter in an edited book
Buechler, H.: ‘“Interconnected Positionalities”: Foreigners and Foreign Experience in the Lives of Aymara Intellectuals’, in Nash, J.C., Buechler, H.C. (Eds.): ‘Ethnographic Collaborations in Latin America: The Effects of Globalization’ (Palgrave Macmillan US, 2016), pp. 89–110

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for IET Computers & Digital Techniques.

Blog post
Andrew, E.: ‘Populations Of World’s Rarest Big Cat Rebound’,, accessed October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: ‘Greater Use of Exemplary Education Programs Could Improve Education for Disadvantaged Children’ (U.S. Government Printing Office, 1981)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Zhao, X.: ‘Exfoliation Corrosion Kinetics of High Strength Aluminum Alloys’. Doctoral dissertation, Ohio State University, 2006

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kenigsberg, B.: ‘Whitney: Can I Be Me’New York Times, 2017, p. C9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [2].
This sentence cites two references [2, 4].
This sentence cites four references [2, 4, 6, 8].

About the journal

Full journal titleIET Computers & Digital Techniques
AbbreviationIET Comput. Digit. Tech.
ISSN (print)1751-8601
ScopeHardware and Architecture
Electrical and Electronic Engineering

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