How to format your references using the IET Computers & Digital Techniques citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for IET Computers & Digital Techniques. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Klein, R.G.: ‘Paleoanthropology. Whither the Neanderthals?’Science, 2003, 299, (5612), pp. 1525–1527.
A journal article with 2 authors
Vetter, I.R., Wittinghofer, A.: ‘The guanine nucleotide-binding switch in three dimensions’Science, 2001, 294, (5545), pp. 1299–1304.
A journal article with 3 authors
Yu, Q., Geng, Y., Sicinski, P.: ‘Specific protection against breast cancers by cyclin D1 ablation’Nature, 2001, 411, (6841), pp. 1017–1021.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Qiu, S.-Q., Wei, X.-L., Huang, W.-H., et al.: ‘Diagnostic and therapeutic strategy and the most efficient prognostic factors of breast malignant fibrous histiocytoma’Sci. Rep., 2013, 3, p. 2529.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Mauthe, A., Thomas, P.: ‘Professional Content Management Systems’ (John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2005)
An edited book
Nagnibeda, E.: ‘Non-Equilibrium Reacting Gas Flows: Kinetic Theory of Transport and Relaxation Processes’ (Springer, 2009)
A chapter in an edited book
Andersson, K., Forte, A.G., Schulzrinne, H.: ‘Enhanced Mobility Support for Roaming Users: Extending the IEEE 802.21 Information Service’, in Osipov, E., Kassler, A., Bohnert, T.M., Masip-Bruin, X. (Eds.): ‘Wired/Wireless Internet Communications: 8th International Conference, WWIC 2010, Luleå, Sweden, June 1-3, 2010. Proceedings’ (Springer, 2010), pp. 52–63

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for IET Computers & Digital Techniques.

Blog post
Andrew, E.: ‘Newly Developed Fatty Nanoparticles Could Be A Viable Antibiotic Alternative’,, accessed October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: ‘Relevance of GAO Report, “Improvements Needed in DOE’s Efforts To Develop a Financial Reporting System”’ (U.S. Government Printing Office, 1978)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kress, D.M.: ‘A phenomenological study exploring executive coaching: Understanding perceptions of self-awareness and leadership behavior changes’. Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix, 2008

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow, K.: ‘An Esteemed Seminary’s Earthly Concern: The Endowment Shrinks, but Bills Persist’New York Times, 2002, p. 144.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [2].
This sentence cites two references [2, 4].
This sentence cites four references [2, 4, 6, 8].

About the journal

Full journal titleIET Computers & Digital Techniques
AbbreviationIET Comput. Digit. Tech.
ISSN (print)1751-8601
ScopeHardware and Architecture
Electrical and Electronic Engineering

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