How to format your references using the IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics: Systems citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics: Systems. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
L. O. Hedin, “Retrospective. F. Herbert Bormann (1922-2012),” Science, vol. 337, no. 6094, p. 534, Aug. 2012.
A journal article with 2 authors
J. H. Schwartz and I. Tattersall, “ANTHROPOLOGY. Defining the genus Homo,” Science, vol. 349, no. 6251, pp. 931–932, Aug. 2015.
A journal article with 3 authors
M. Boudvillain, A. de Lencastre, and A. M. Pyle, “A tertiary interaction that links active-site domains to the 5’ splice site of a group II intron,” Nature, vol. 406, no. 6793, pp. 315–318, Jul. 2000.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
A. V. Goldberg et al., “Localization and functionality of microsporidian iron-sulphur cluster assembly proteins,” Nature, vol. 452, no. 7187, pp. 624–628, Apr. 2008.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
M. Yener and O. Dundar, Expert Android ® Studio. Indianapolis, Indiana: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2016.
An edited book
F. Graziani, Ed., Computational Methods in Transport: Verification and Validation, vol. 62. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
M. Broom, G. D. Ruxton, and M. P. Speed, “Evolutionarily Stable Investment in Anti-Predatory Defences and Aposematic Signalling,” in Mathematical Modeling of Biological Systems, Volume II: Epidemiology, Evolution and Ecology,Immunology, Neural Systems and the Brain, and Innovative Mathematical Methods, A. Deutsch, R. B. de la Parra, R. J. de Boer, O. Diekmann, P. Jagers, E. Kisdi, M. Kretzschmar, P. Lansky, and H. Metz, Eds. Boston, MA: Birkhäuser, 2008, pp. 37–48.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics: Systems.

Blog post
J. Davis, “Fracking Chemicals Discovered In Drinking Water,” IFLScience, 06-May-2015. .


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “Truck Safety: Share the Road Safely Pilot Initiative Showed Promise, but the Program’s Future Success Is Uncertain,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, GAO-06-916, Sep. 2006.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
J. V. Ruiz-Resto, “The Effects of Technical and Imagery-based Instruction on Aspiring Performing Artists’ Acquisition of Learning Newly Composed Pieces and Improvisation and on Listeners’ Perceived Expressivity,” Doctoral dissertation, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, 2016.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
L. Greenhouse, “Justices Reject Appeal in Tobacco Case,” New York Times, p. A18, 18-Oct-2005.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics: Systems
AbbreviationIEEE Trans. Syst. Man Cybern. Syst.
ISSN (print)2168-2216
ScopeComputer Science Applications
Human-Computer Interaction
Control and Systems Engineering
Electrical and Electronic Engineering

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