How to format your references using the IEEE Security & Privacy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for IEEE Security & Privacy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
W. S. Bainbridge, “Perceptions of science essay. Privacy and property on the Net: research questions,” Science, vol. 302, no. 5651, pp. 1686–1687, Dec. 2003.
A journal article with 2 authors
M. A. Jadamec and M. I. Billen, “Reconciling surface plate motions with rapid three-dimensional mantle flow around a slab edge,” Nature, vol. 465, no. 7296, pp. 338–341, May 2010.
A journal article with 3 authors
J. L. Blois, J. L. McGuire, and E. A. Hadly, “Small mammal diversity loss in response to late-Pleistocene climatic change,” Nature, vol. 465, no. 7299, pp. 771–774, Jun. 2010.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
P. J. Mumby, J. R. Chisholm, C. D. Clark, J. D. Hedley, and J. Jaubert, “Spectrographic imaging. A bird’s-eye view of the health of coral reefs,” Nature, vol. 413, no. 6851, p. 36, Sep. 2001.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
B. Voit, R. Haag, D. Appelhans, and P. B. Welzel, Bio- and Multifunctional Polymer Architectures. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc, 2016.
An edited book
S.-I. Nakano and M. S. Rahman, Eds., WALCOM: Algorithms and Computation: Second International Workshop, WALCOM 2008, Dhaka, Bangladesh, February 7-8, 2008. Proceedings, vol. 4921. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
W. Bishop and T. H. Grubesic, “Metadata,” in Geographic Information: Organization, Access, and Use, T. H. Grubesic, Ed. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2016, pp. 79–103.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for IEEE Security & Privacy.

Blog post
E. Andrew, “Meet The Healthy, Functioning Man Who Survived With Almost No Brain,” IFLScience, Oct. 07, 2015. .


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “Responses to Questions for the Record; Hearing on JPDO and the Next Generation Air Transportation System: Status and Issues,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, GAO-07-918R, May 2007.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
T. C. ELBoushi, “Evaluating ethics training and the outcome on leadership decision making: A phenomenological study,” Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M. W. Walsh, “At Hearing, Caterpillar Defends Tax Practices,” New York Times, p. B3, Apr. 02, 2014.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIEEE Security & Privacy
AbbreviationIEEE Secur. Priv.
ISSN (print)1540-7993
ScopeComputer Networks and Communications
Electrical and Electronic Engineering

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