How to format your references using the IEEE Security & Privacy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for IEEE Security & Privacy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
R. B. Penn, “Physiology. Calcilytics for asthma relief,” Science, vol. 348, no. 6233, pp. 398–399, Apr. 2015.
A journal article with 2 authors
A. Armakolas and A. J. S. Klar, “Left-right dynein motor implicated in selective chromatid segregation in mouse cells,” Science, vol. 315, no. 5808, pp. 100–101, Jan. 2007.
A journal article with 3 authors
A. R. Richardson, S. J. Libby, and F. C. Fang, “A nitric oxide-inducible lactate dehydrogenase enables Staphylococcus aureus to resist innate immunity,” Science, vol. 319, no. 5870, pp. 1672–1676, Mar. 2008.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
K. Kinoshita, I. Arnal, A. Desai, D. N. Drechsel, and A. A. Hyman, “Reconstitution of physiological microtubule dynamics using purified components,” Science, vol. 294, no. 5545, pp. 1340–1343, Nov. 2001.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
R. L. Stein, Kinetics of Enzyme Action. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2011.
An edited book
J. N. Pelton and F. Allahdadi, Eds., Handbook of Cosmic Hazards and Planetary Defense. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
S. Srinivasulu and A. Jain, “Rainfall-Runoff Modelling: Integrating Available Data and Modern Techniques,” in Practical Hydroinformatics: Computational Intelligence and Technological Developments in Water Applications, R. J. Abrahart, L. M. See, and D. P. Solomatine, Eds. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2008, pp. 59–70.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for IEEE Security & Privacy.

Blog post
E. Andrew, “Sperm From Stressed Fathers Alters Genes In The Brains Of Offspring,” IFLScience, 21-Oct-2015. [Online]. Available: [Accessed: 30-Oct-2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “Collection Efforts Not Keeping Pace With Growing Number of Defaulted Student Loans,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, CD-77-1, Aug. 1977.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
S. S. Hernandez, “Professionals’ perceptions of effective interventions with elderly hoarders,” Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M. L. K. Hagerdon, “The Triangle,” New York Times, p. A14, 16-Aug-2016.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIEEE Security & Privacy
AbbreviationIEEE Secur. Priv.
ISSN (print)1540-7993
ScopeComputer Networks and Communications
Electrical and Electronic Engineering

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