How to format your references using the IEEE Robotics & Automation Magazine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for IEEE Robotics & Automation Magazine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
S. G. Philander, “Atmospheric science. Tilting at connections, from pole to equator,” Science, vol. 328, no. 5985, pp. 1488–1489, Jun. 2010.
A journal article with 2 authors
C. M. Orme and J. S. Bogan, “Cell biology. Sorting out diabetes,” Science, vol. 324, no. 5931, pp. 1155–1156, May 2009.
A journal article with 3 authors
D. Lu, M. A. Searles, and A. Klug, “Crystal structure of a zinc-finger-RNA complex reveals two modes of molecular recognition,” Nature, vol. 426, no. 6962, pp. 96–100, Nov. 2003.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
J. Nagyvary, J. A. DiVerdi, N. L. Owen, and H. D. Tolley, “Wood used by Stradivari and Guarneri,” Nature, vol. 444, no. 7119, p. 565, Nov. 2006.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
N. Avlonas and G. P. Nassos, Practical Sustainability Strategies. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc, 2013.
An edited book
G. E. A. Meier, K. R. Sreenivasan, and H.-J. Heinemann, Eds., IUTAM Symposium on One Hundred Years of Boundary Layer Research: Proceedings of the IUTAM Symposium held at DLR-Göttingen, Germany, August 12-14, 2004, vol. 129. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
A. Janvier, C. Bellieni, and K. Barrington, “Neonates Are Devalued Compared to Older Patients,” in Ethical Dilemmas for Critically Ill Babies, E. Verhagen and A. Janvier, Eds. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, 2016, pp. 25–33.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for IEEE Robotics & Automation Magazine.

Blog post
E. Andrew, “Bacterial Communication Signals Altered To Battle Pancreatic Cancer,” IFLScience, Sep. 25, 2014. (accessed Oct. 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “Health Information Technology: More Detailed Plans Needed for the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Redesigned BioSense Program,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, GAO-09-100, Nov. 2008.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
J. M. Siani, “Costs and benefits of cooperative infant care in wild golden lion tamarins (Leontopithecus rosalia),” Doctoral dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park, College Park, MD, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
S. Dominus, “Singing Together Again,” New York Times, p. C1, Dec. 16, 2016.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIEEE Robotics & Automation Magazine
AbbreviationIEEE Robot. Autom. Mag.
ISSN (print)1070-9932
ScopeComputer Science Applications
Control and Systems Engineering
Electrical and Electronic Engineering

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