How to format your references using the IEEE Design & Test of Computers citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for IEEE Design & Test of Computers. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
A. Barratt, “Perspective: The risks of overdiagnosis,” Nature, vol. 527, no. 7578, p. S104, Nov. 2015.
A journal article with 2 authors
M. D. Lukin and A. Imamoğlu, “Controlling photons using electromagnetically induced transparency,” Nature, vol. 413, no. 6853, pp. 273–276, Sep. 2001.
A journal article with 3 authors
J. T. Bueno, N. Shchukina, and A. A. Ramos, “A substantial amount of hidden magnetic energy in the quiet Sun,” Nature, vol. 430, no. 6997, pp. 326–329, Jul. 2004.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
A. Mitchell et al., “Adaptive prediction of environmental changes by microorganisms,” Nature, vol. 460, no. 7252, pp. 220–224, Jul. 2009.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
S. D. Summerhayes, CDM Regulations 2015 Procedures Manual. Chichester, UK: John Wiley &;#38; Sons, Ltd, 2016.
An edited book
M. Ahsanullah, Normal and Student´s t Distributions and Their Applications, vol. 4. Paris: Atlantis Press, 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
A. Rodríguez, J. Selga, F. Martín, and V. E. Boria, “Practical Application of Space Mapping Techniques to the Synthesis of CSRR-Based Artificial Transmission Lines,” in Surrogate-Based Modeling and Optimization: Applications in Engineering, S. Koziel and L. Leifsson, Eds. New York, NY: Springer, 2013, pp. 81–97.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for IEEE Design & Test of Computers.

Blog post
R. Andrews, “UN Declares That Internet Restrictions Violate Human Rights,” IFLScience, 05-Jul-2016. [Online]. Available: [Accessed: 30-Oct-2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “Audit of Accounts at the U.S. Army Research and Development Command,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 094277, Jun. 1976.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
P. D. Hoefer, “A David against Goliath: The American veterans committee’s challenge to the American legion in the 1950s,” Doctoral dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park, College Park, MD, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
N. Neroulias and L. Saslow, “School Districts Gird For Bad-News Budgets,” New York Times, p. WE1, 22-Mar-2009.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIEEE Design & Test of Computers
ISSN (print)0740-7475

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