How to format your references using the IEEE Design & Test of Computers citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for IEEE Design & Test of Computers. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
D. Grünbaum, “Ecology. Peter principle packs a peck of phytoplankton,” Science, vol. 323, no. 5917, pp. 1022–1023, Feb. 2009.
A journal article with 2 authors
I. Izquierdo and M. Cammarota, “Neuroscience. Zif and the survival of memory,” Science, vol. 304, no. 5672, pp. 829–830, May 2004.
A journal article with 3 authors
M. B. Kalka, A. R. Smith, and E. K. V. Kalko, “Bats limit arthropods and herbivory in a tropical forest,” Science, vol. 320, no. 5872, p. 71, Apr. 2008.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
F. Forget, R. M. Haberle, F. Montmessin, B. Levrard, and J. W. Head, “Formation of glaciers on Mars by atmospheric precipitation at high obliquity,” Science, vol. 311, no. 5759, pp. 368–371, Jan. 2006.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
E. Breitmaier, Vom NMR-Spektrum zur Strukturformel organischer Verbindungen. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 2005.
An edited book
T.-H. Lim, Ed., Practical Textbook of Cardiac CT and MRI. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
F. F. Filho, “The Economic Policies and Performance of Brazil’s Leftist Government: A Critical Analysis,” in The Brazilian Economy Today: Towards a New Socio-Economic Model?, A. W. Pereira and L. Mattei, Eds. London: Palgrave Macmillan UK, 2016, pp. 77–87.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for IEEE Design & Test of Computers.

Blog post
R. Andrews, “NASA Finds Young Volcano On Mars That Outlived The Dinosaurs,” IFLScience, Mar. 21, 2017.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “Federal Motor Vehicles: Agencies’ Progress in Meeting Expenditure Control Requirements,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, GGD-88-40, Mar. 1988.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
D. Bryan, “Facilitators or impediments to college readiness,” Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA, 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
S. Hollander, “Imagining a Place Where Cheers Never End,” New York Times, p. CY6, Aug. 10, 2008.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIEEE Design & Test of Computers
ISSN (print)0740-7475

Other styles