How to format your references using the IEEE Design & Test of Computers citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for IEEE Design & Test of Computers. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
P. Farese, “Technology: How to build a low-energy future,” Nature, vol. 488, no. 7411, pp. 275–277, Aug. 2012.
A journal article with 2 authors
J. R. Buchan and R. Parker, “Molecular biology. The two faces of miRNA,” Science, vol. 318, no. 5858, pp. 1877–1878, Dec. 2007.
A journal article with 3 authors
G. Di Toro, S. Nielsen, and G. Pennacchioni, “Earthquake rupture dynamics frozen in exhumed ancient faults,” Nature, vol. 436, no. 7053, pp. 1009–1012, Aug. 2005.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
C. Mocuta, H. Reichert, K. Mecke, H. Dosch, and M. Drakopoulos, “Scaling in the time domain: universal dynamics of order fluctuations in Fe3Al,” Science, vol. 308, no. 5726, pp. 1287–1291, May 2005.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
A. Hahn, B. Behle, D. Lischewski, and W. Rein, Produktionstechnische Praxis. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 2002.
An edited book
D. Crane, Comet and Reverse Ajax: The Next-Generation Ajax 2.0. Berkeley, CA: Apress, 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
W. Post, “Car braking-system components,” in Brakes, Brake Control and Driver Assistance Systems: Function, Regulation and Components, K. Reif, Ed. Wiesbaden: Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden, 2014, pp. 40–55.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for IEEE Design & Test of Computers.

Blog post
E. Andrew, “Ants Prove Useful in Detecting Land Containing Gold,” IFLScience, Mar. 18, 2014. (accessed Oct. 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “Settlement of Accounts of Certifying Officer, Lewis Research Center,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 092399, Mar. 1972.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
T. H. Nguyen, “Adolescent substance use family-based treatment: A grant proposal project,” Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA, 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
J. Williams, “Top of the Class,” New York Times, p. BR6, Dec. 09, 2016.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIEEE Design & Test of Computers
ISSN (print)0740-7475

Other styles