How to format your references using the IEEE Design & Test citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for IEEE Design & Test. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
S. J. Martin, “Cell biology. Opening the cellular poison cabinet,” Science, vol. 330, no. 6009, pp. 1330–1331, Dec. 2010.
A journal article with 2 authors
R. Custers and H. Aarts, “The unconscious will: how the pursuit of goals operates outside of conscious awareness,” Science, vol. 329, no. 5987, pp. 47–50, Jul. 2010.
A journal article with 3 authors
A. P. Melis, B. Hare, and M. Tomasello, “Chimpanzees recruit the best collaborators,” Science, vol. 311, no. 5765, pp. 1297–1300, Mar. 2006.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
T. M. Knight, M. W. McCoy, J. M. Chase, K. A. McCoy, and R. D. Holt, “Trophic cascades across ecosystems,” Nature, vol. 437, no. 7060, pp. 880–883, Oct. 2005.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
R. L.-C. Delgado and M. Araki, Spoken, Multilingual and Multimodal Dialogue Systems. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2006.
An edited book
T. Joro, Extension of Data Envelopment Analysis with Preference Information: Value Efficiency, vol. 218. Boston, MA: Springer US, 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
D. Ma and R. Bondade, “Reconfigurable Switched-Capacitor Power Converters,” in Reconfigurable Switched-Capacitor Power Converters: Principles and Designs for Self-Powered Microsystems, R. Bondade, Ed. New York, NY: Springer, 2013, pp. 71–110.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for IEEE Design & Test.

Blog post
S. Luntz, “Clue To Mysterious Lights That Appear Before Earthquakes,” IFLScience, Mar. 07, 2014. (accessed Oct. 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “Telecommunications: Ohio Cable Television Rate Increases, 1986 to Present,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, RCED-88-236FS, Sep. 1988.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
S. Bono, “Perceptions of Psychological Abuse and the Impact of Blame and Gender Role Beliefs,” Doctoral dissertation, Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville, IL, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
K. Crow, “Sealed Since ’88, A Condo Garage May Soon See Some Daylight,” New York Times, p. 144, May 06, 2001.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIEEE Design & Test
AbbreviationIEEE Des. Test
ISSN (print)2168-2356
ScopeHardware and Architecture
Electrical and Electronic Engineering

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