How to format your references using the IEEE Design & Test citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for IEEE Design & Test. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
A. Kondrashov, “James Crow (1916-2012),” Nature, vol. 481, no. 7382, p. 444, Jan. 2012.
A journal article with 2 authors
N. Philip and A. P. Waters, “Microbiology. Unveiling the malaria parasite’s cloak of invisibility?,” Science, vol. 340, no. 6135, pp. 936–937, May 2013.
A journal article with 3 authors
C. Alexandre, A. Baena-Lopez, and J.-P. Vincent, “Patterning and growth control by membrane-tethered Wingless,” Nature, vol. 505, no. 7482, pp. 180–185, Jan. 2014.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
R. Hanayama et al., “Autoimmune disease and impaired uptake of apoptotic cells in MFG-E8-deficient mice,” Science, vol. 304, no. 5674, pp. 1147–1150, May 2004.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
M. C. Hallberg, Economic Trends in U.S. Agriculture and Food Systems Since World War II. Ames, Iowa, USA: Iowa State University Press, 2008.
An edited book
T. Spyropoulos and K. A. Hummel, Eds., Self-Organizing Systems: 4th IFIP TC 6 International Workshop, IWSOS 2009, Zurich, Switzerland, December 9-11, 2009. Proceedings, vol. 5918. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
D. Ahlert and B. Schefer, “Competition-Policy Implications,” in Vertical Price Coordination and Brand Care: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on the Prohibition of Resale Price Maintenance, B. Schefer, Ed. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2013, pp. 47–57.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for IEEE Design & Test.

Blog post
J. Fang, “Could Tooth Regeneration Be Possible In Humans One Day?,” IFLScience, Oct. 21, 2015. (accessed Oct. 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “Space Transportation: The Content and Uses of Shuttle Cost Estimates,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, NSIAD-93-115, Jan. 1993.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
G. L. Schroder, “A quantitative study of critical thinking skills in bachelors of science nursing program students,” Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ, 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
J. Poniewozik and M. Hale, “Ahead of Its Time? Let’s Look Back,” New York Times, p. AR29, May 17, 2017.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIEEE Design & Test
AbbreviationIEEE Des. Test
ISSN (print)2168-2356
ScopeHardware and Architecture
Electrical and Electronic Engineering

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