How to format your references using the IEEE Design & Test citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for IEEE Design & Test. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
M. Grayson, “Bees,” Nature, vol. 521, no. 7552, p. S47, May 2015.
A journal article with 2 authors
F. Su and P. Xu, “Genomic analysis of thermophilic Bacillus coagulans strains: efficient producers for platform bio-chemicals,” Sci. Rep., vol. 4, p. 3926, Jan. 2014.
A journal article with 3 authors
R. C. Paniello, J. M. D. Day, and F. Moynier, “Zinc isotopic evidence for the origin of the Moon,” Nature, vol. 490, no. 7420, pp. 376–379, Oct. 2012.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
K. Liakath-Ali et al., “An evolutionarily conserved ribosome-rescue pathway maintains epidermal homeostasis,” Nature, vol. 556, no. 7701, pp. 376–380, Apr. 2018.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
C. L. Rao, V. Narayanamurthy, and K. R. Y. Simha, Applied Impact Mechanics. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2016.
An edited book
M. Cherkaoui, Atomistic and Continuum Modeling of Nanocrystalline Materials: Deformation Mechanisms and Scale Transition, vol. 112. Boston, MA: Springer US, 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
M. Hirsch and T. E. Passenbrunner, “Extension of Static Non-linear DoE Identification Algorithms to Dynamic Systems,” in Computer Aided Systems Theory – EUROCAST 2011: 13th International Conference, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain, February 6-11, 2011, Revised Selected Papers, Part II, R. Moreno-Díaz, F. Pichler, and A. Quesada-Arencibia, Eds. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2012, pp. 33–40.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for IEEE Design & Test.

Blog post
E. Andrew, “New Type Of Exoplanet Discovered,” IFLScience, 03-Jun-2014. .


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “The Near-Term Potential of Manufacturing in Space,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 113814, Jan. 1980.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
M. Fichera, “Transport of seawater and its influence on the transverse tensile strength of unidirectional composite materials,” Doctoral dissertation, Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, FL, 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
K. Feeney, “Beachfront Cafe,” New York Times, p. 14NJ10, 09-Sep-2007.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIEEE Design & Test
AbbreviationIEEE Des. Test
ISSN (print)2168-2356
ScopeHardware and Architecture
Electrical and Electronic Engineering

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