How to format your references using the Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Goldston D. In which we say goodbye. Nature 2009; 462:25.
A journal article with 2 authors
Dupont S, Pörtner H. Marine science: get ready for ocean acidification. Nature 2013; 498:429.
A journal article with 3 authors
Baram M, Chatain D, Kaplan WD. Nanometer-thick equilibrium films: the interface between thermodynamics and atomistics. Science 2011; 332:206–9.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Robinson RD, Sadtler B, Demchenko DO, Erdonmez CK, Wang L-W, Alivisatos AP. Spontaneous superlattice formation in nanorods through partial cation exchange. Science 2007; 317:355–8.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ni Z, Pacoret C, Benosman R, Régnier S. Haptic Feedback Teleoperation of Optical Tweezers. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2014.
An edited book
Shimizu Y. Frontiers in Computing Technologies for Manufacturing Applications. London: Springer; 2007.
A chapter in an edited book
Haberdar H, Albayrak S. A Two-Stage Visual Turkish Sign Language Recognition System Based on Global and Local Features. In: Esposito F, Raś ZW, Malerba D, Semeraro G, editors. Foundations of Intelligent Systems: 16th International Symposium, ISMIS 2006, Bari, Italy, September 27-29, 2006. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2006. page 29–37.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics.

Blog post
Andrew E. The Secret Sex Life And Pregnancy Of A Seahorse Dad. IFLScience2015;


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. [Comments on DOT Authority To Requisition Vessels]. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1988.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Meng W. Synthesis and design of microwave wideband filters and components. 2014;

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse L. Curb on Access to News In Prison Gets Hearing. New York Times2006; :A14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleHuman Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
AbbreviationHum. Vaccin.
ISSN (print)1554-8600
ISSN (online)1554-8619
General Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutics

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