How to format your references using the Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Crouch T. Harold Melvin Agnew (1921-2013). Nature 2013; 503:40.
A journal article with 2 authors
Koeller KM, Wong CH. Enzymes for chemical synthesis. Nature 2001; 409:232–40.
A journal article with 3 authors
Zhu G-Z, Radtke G, Botton GA. Bonding and structure of a reconstructed (001) surface of SrTiO3 from TEM. Nature 2012; 490:384–7.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Smith GP, Wiens DA, Fischer KM, Dorman LM, Webb SC, Hildebrand JA. A complex pattern of mantle flow in the Lau backarc. Science 2001; 292:713–6.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Wrobel GM, Neil E. International Advances in Adoption Research for Practice. Chichester, West Sussex, UK: John Wiley & Sons Ltd.; 2009.
An edited book
Moreno-Díaz R, Pichler F, Quesada-Arencibia A, editors. Computer Aided Systems Theory – EUROCAST 2011: 13th International Conference, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain, February 6-11, 2011, Revised Selected Papers, Part I. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
Unruh WG. Irrotational, Two-Dimensional Surface Waves in Fluids. In: Faccio D, Belgiorno F, Cacciatori S, Gorini V, Liberati S, Moschella U, editors. Analogue Gravity Phenomenology: Analogue Spacetimes and Horizons, from Theory to Experiment. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2013. page 63–80.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics.

Blog post
Carpineti A. Astronomers Have Observed Water Clouds In A Distant Star System [Internet]. IFLScience2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]; Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Social Security Administration’s Computer Systems Modernization Effort May Not Achieve Planned Objectives. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1985.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Day KC. CPA Perceptions of Human Skills for Professional Competency Development Needs. 2017;

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleHuman Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
AbbreviationHum. Vaccin.
ISSN (print)1554-8600
ISSN (online)1554-8619
General Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutics

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