How to format your references using the High Altitude Medicine & Biology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for High Altitude Medicine & Biology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gershon D (2000). Pushing the frontiers of interdisciplinary research: an idea whose time has come. Nature 404:313–315.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kinnamon SC and Reynolds SD (2009). Cell biology. Using taste to clear the air(ways). Science 325:1081–1082.
A journal article with 3 authors
Barnes SE, Ieda J, and Maekawa S (2014). Rashba spin-orbit anisotropy and the electric field control of magnetism. Sci Rep 4:4105.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Bais HP, Prithiviraj B, Jha AK, Ausubel FM, and Vivanco JM (2005). Mediation of pathogen resistance by exudation of antimicrobials from roots. Nature 434:217–221.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kuehni RG (2012). Color. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
(2012). Teacher Learning and Power in the Knowledge Society. SensePublishers: Rotterdam.
A chapter in an edited book
Renso C, Puntoni S, Frentzos E, Mazzoni A, Moelans B, Pelekis N, and Pini F (2008). Wireless Network Data Sources: Tracking and Synthesizing Trajectories. In: Mobility, Data Mining and Privacy: Geographic Knowledge Discovery. F Giannotti and D Pedreschi, eds. Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 73–100.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for High Altitude Medicine & Biology.

Blog post
Andrew D (2016). How To Save Inbred, Short-Faced Dogs Such As Pugs And Bulldogs From Poor Health. IFLScience. 2016 Available at (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2015). Geospatial Data: Progress Needed on Identifying Expenditures, Building and Utilizing a Data Infrastructure, and Reducing Duplicative Efforts [Reissued March 18, 2015]. U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lee D (2010). Subjective strain, anger, and delinquency: Evidence from South Korea. Doctoral dissertation. University of Maryland, College Park.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly BP (2005). Closing Time; Iskandariya. New York Times A15.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Gershon, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Gershon, 2000; Kinnamon and Reynolds, 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kinnamon and Reynolds, 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Bais et al., 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleHigh Altitude Medicine & Biology
AbbreviationHigh Alt. Med. Biol.
ISSN (print)1527-0297
ISSN (online)1557-8682
General Medicine
Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

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