How to format your references using the High Altitude Medicine & Biology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for High Altitude Medicine & Biology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bignami G (2009). Why we need space travel. Nature 460:325.
A journal article with 2 authors
Taylor AF and Smith GR (2003). RecBCD enzyme is a DNA helicase with fast and slow motors of opposite polarity. Nature 423:889–893.
A journal article with 3 authors
Samokhvalov AV, Shekhter RI, and Buzdin AI (2014). Stimulation of a singlet superconductivity in SFS weak links by spin-exchange scattering of cooper pairs. Sci Rep 4:5671.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Unnithan VV, Unc A, Joe V, and Smith GB (2014). Short RNA indicator sequences are not completely degraded by autoclaving. Sci Rep 4:4070.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
van Vreeswijk M, Broersen J, and Schurink G (2014). Mindfulness and Schema Therapy. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.: Chichester, UK.
An edited book
(2007). Multiagent System Technologies: 5th German Conference, MATES 2007, Leipzig, Germany, September 24-26, 2007. Proceedings. Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Tian W-C and Finehout E (2009). Microfluidic Systems for Protein Separations. In: Microfluidics for Biological Applications. E Finehout and W-C Tian, eds. Springer US: Boston, MA, pp. 165–184.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for High Altitude Medicine & Biology.

Blog post
Taub B (2016). “Princess Leia Brainwaves” Help Consolidate Memories While We Sleep. IFLScience. 2016 Available at (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2001). BIA and DOD Schools: Student Achievement and Other Characteristics Often Differ from Public Schools’. U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Shamloo Aliabadi E (2013). The effect of distortion on trajectory of diesel Particulate Matters (PM) from mobile sources. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Feeney K (2007). Ewe Go, Cheese Lovers. New York Times NJ9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Bignami, 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Bignami, 2009; Taylor and Smith, 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Taylor and Smith, 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Unnithan et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleHigh Altitude Medicine & Biology
AbbreviationHigh Alt. Med. Biol.
ISSN (print)1527-0297
ISSN (online)1557-8682
General Medicine
Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

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