How to format your references using the High Altitude Medicine & Biology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for High Altitude Medicine & Biology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Frenkel D (2002). Colloidal systems. Playing tricks with designer “atoms.” Science 296:65–66.
A journal article with 2 authors
Cheng J-X and Xie XS (2015). Vibrational spectroscopic imaging of living systems: An emerging platform for biology and medicine. Science 350:aaa8870.
A journal article with 3 authors
Niethammer P, Bastiaens P, and Karsenti E (2004). Stathmin-tubulin interaction gradients in motile and mitotic cells. Science 303:1862–1866.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Patriarchi T, Cho JR, Merten K, Howe MW, Marley A, Xiong W-H, Folk RW, Broussard GJ, Liang R, Jang MJ, Zhong H, Dombeck D, von Zastrow M, Nimmerjahn A, Gradinaru V, Williams JT, and Tian L (2018). Ultrafast neuronal imaging of dopamine dynamics with designed genetically encoded sensors. Science 360.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Schuenemeyer JH and Drew LJ (2010). Statistics for Earth and Environmental Scientists. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
(2008). Robotics and Cognitive Approaches to Spatial Mapping. Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Dolan EM, Bauer JW, and Katras MJ (2011). Making Rural Employment Work. In: Rural Families and Work: Context and Problems. JW Bauer and EM Dolan, eds. Springer: New York, NY, pp. 55–76.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for High Altitude Medicine & Biology.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015). First Video Of Genet Spotted Riding A Black Rhino. IFLScience. 2015 Available at (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1981). A Bibliography of Documents Issued by the GAO on Matters Related to: ADP. U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Felarca CU (2012). A burning problem: Skin protection practices among college nursing students and non-nursing college students. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wilson M (2017). New Jersey Man Is Found Guilty on All Counts in Chelsea Bomb Attack. New York Times A19.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Frenkel, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Cheng and Xie, 2015; Frenkel, 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Cheng and Xie, 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Patriarchi et al., 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleHigh Altitude Medicine & Biology
AbbreviationHigh Alt. Med. Biol.
ISSN (print)1527-0297
ISSN (online)1557-8682
General Medicine
Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

Other styles