How to format your references using the Hepatobiliary & Pancreatic Diseases International citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Hepatobiliary & Pancreatic Diseases International. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Holden C. ACADEMIC COMMUNITY: Institute Goes to Court to Remove Researcher. Science 2000;290:683b–5b.
A journal article with 2 authors
Bowerman B, O’Rourke SM. Development. Pushing your back into place. Science 2012;336:984–5.
A journal article with 3 authors
Fowler AG, Devitt SJ, Jones C. Surface code implementation of block code state distillation. Sci Rep 2013;3:1939.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Joint I, Tait K, Callow ME, Callow JA, Milton D, Williams P, et al. Cell-to-cell communication across the prokaryote-eukaryote boundary. Science 2002;298:1207.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Blevins RD. Formulas for Dynamics, Acoustics and Vibration. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2015.
An edited book
Monastyrsky MI, editor. Topology in Condensed Matter. vol. 150. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
Beckers G, Hannula A. Deborah Britzman. In: Kirylo JD, editor. A Critical Pedagogy of Resistance: 34 Pedagogues We Need to Know, Rotterdam: SensePublishers; 2013, p. 13–6.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Hepatobiliary & Pancreatic Diseases International.

Blog post
Andrew E. How Particle Accelerator Maths Helped Me Fix My Wi-Fi. IFLScience 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Pipeline Safety: Preliminary Information on the Office of Pipeline Safety’s Efforts to Strengthen Its Enforcement Activities. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2004.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Tabak S. Aspiring States at the International Court of Justice. Doctoral dissertation. George Washington University, 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Barron J. In the Age of Reality TV, a Best-Selling Author Calls In Real-Life Heroes. New York Times 2017:A18.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleHepatobiliary & Pancreatic Diseases International
ISSN (print)1499-3872

Other styles