How to format your references using the Hepatobiliary & Pancreatic Diseases International citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Hepatobiliary & Pancreatic Diseases International. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Alley RB. The key to the past? Nature 2001;409:289.
A journal article with 2 authors
Davis PM, Jackson DD. Retrospective. Leon Knopoff (1925-2011). Science 2011;331:1400.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bonneh YS, Cooperman A, Sagi D. Motion-induced blindness in normal observers. Nature 2001;411:798–801.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Allman BE, McMahon PJ, Nugent KA, Paganin D, Jacobson DL, Arif M, et al. Phase radiography with neutrons. Nature 2000;408:158–9.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Alexandrovna MI, Ionin BI, Tebby JC. Alkynes in Cycloadditions. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons Ltd; 2013.
An edited book
Zentes J. Strategic Retail Management: Text and International Cases. Wiesbaden: Gabler; 2007.
A chapter in an edited book
Shi L, Ólafsson S. Mathematical Programming in the NP Framework. In: Ólafsson S, editor. Nested Partitions Method, Theory and Applications, Boston, MA: Springer US; 2009, p. 69–83.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Hepatobiliary & Pancreatic Diseases International.

Blog post
Andrew D. Free Passes To National Parks Today. IFLScience 2015. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Operation of the Copyright Royalty Tribunal. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1981.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
McGrath PM. Mental Health Parity and Addiction Equity Act of 2008: A policy analysis. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey G. Bustling Booth Becomes Waypoint In Ashe’s Legacy. New York Times 2010:SP7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleHepatobiliary & Pancreatic Diseases International
ISSN (print)1499-3872

Other styles