How to format your references using the Hepatobiliary & Pancreatic Diseases International citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Hepatobiliary & Pancreatic Diseases International. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Dunlop JS. The cosmic history of star formation. Science 2011;333:178–81.
A journal article with 2 authors
Galitski V, Spielman IB. Spin-orbit coupling in quantum gases. Nature 2013;494:49–54.
A journal article with 3 authors
Zheludev I, Smith R, Aste T. When can social media lead financial markets? Sci Rep 2014;4:4213.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Ciccone DN, Su H, Hevi S, Gay F, Lei H, Bajko J, et al. KDM1B is a histone H3K4 demethylase required to establish maternal genomic imprints. Nature 2009;461:415–8.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Epstein M. The Elements of Continuum Biomechanics. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2012.
An edited book
Foster L, Woodthorpe K, editors. Death and Social Policy in Challenging Times. London: Palgrave Macmillan UK; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Noureldin A, Karamat TB, Georgy J. Inertial Navigation System Modeling. In: Karamat TB, Georgy J, editors. Fundamentals of Inertial Navigation, Satellite-based Positioning and their Integration, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2013, p. 167–200.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Hepatobiliary & Pancreatic Diseases International.

Blog post
Andrew D. What Your Pee And Poo Colour Says About Your Health. IFLScience 2016. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Student Discipline: Individuals With Disabilities Education Act. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2001.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Santos E. Altruism in Psychotherapy: Altruistic Acts as an Adjunct to Psychotherapy. Doctoral dissertation. Pepperdine University, 2019.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Martin D. Aleksei Balabanov, 54, Russian Film Director. New York Times 2013:B10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleHepatobiliary & Pancreatic Diseases International
ISSN (print)1499-3872

Other styles