How to format your references using the Heart & Lung: The Journal of Acute and Critical Care citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Heart & Lung: The Journal of Acute and Critical Care. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lincoln T. Cardiac arrest can be less of a gamble. Nature. 2000 Nov 16;408(6810):302.
A journal article with 2 authors
Zhang J, Zhao Y. Formation of zirconium metallic glass. Nature. 2004 Jul 15;430(6997):332–5.
A journal article with 3 authors
Cui P, Tang M, Wu Z-X. Message spreading in networks with stickiness and persistence: large clustering does not always facilitate large-scale diffusion. Sci Rep. 2014 Sep 9;4:6303.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Li W, Zhou X, Lock R, Patchkovskii S, Stolow A, Kapteyn HC, et al. Time-resolved dynamics in N2O4 probed using high harmonic generation. Science. 2008 Nov 21;322(5905):1207–11.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Archer RD. Inorganic and Organometallic Polymers. New York, USA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2002.
An edited book
Dougherty KL. The Calculus of Consent and Constitutional Design. Edward J, editor. New York, NY: Springer; 2011. XII, 120 p. (Studies in Public Choice; vol. 20).
A chapter in an edited book
Meyer MR. The Cervical Vertebrae of KSD-VP-1/1. In: Haile-Selassie Y, Su DF, editors. The Postcranial Anatomy of Australopithecus afarensis: New Insights from KSD-VP-1/1. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2016. p. 63–111. (Vertebrate Paleobiology and Paleoanthropology).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Heart & Lung: The Journal of Acute and Critical Care.

Blog post
Davis J. Largest Turtle Breeding Colony In The Atlantic Discovered [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Telecommunications: GSA Has Made Progress Planning for a New Governmentwide Program, But Critical Issues Remain. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2005 Mar. Report No.: GAO-05-361T.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Munchel BF. Exploratory Study of Counseling Professionals’ Attitudes Toward Distance Clinical Supervision [Doctoral dissertation]. [Tampa, FL]: University of South Florida; 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
de la MERCED MJ, Bray C. Rite Aid Will Sell Some Stores to Walgreens, Ending Plans to Merge. New York Times. 2017 Jun 29;B2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleHeart & Lung: The Journal of Acute and Critical Care
ISSN (print)0147-9563
ISSN (online)1527-3288

Other styles