How to format your references using the Heart & Lung: The Journal of Acute and Critical Care citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Heart & Lung: The Journal of Acute and Critical Care. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gurnett DA. Obituary: James A. Van Allen (1914-2006). Nature. 2006 Sep 14;443(7108):158.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hubbard J, Shaw JH. Uplift of the Longmen Shan and Tibetan plateau, and the 2008 Wenchuan (M = 7.9) earthquake. Nature. 2009 Mar 12;458(7235):194–7.
A journal article with 3 authors
Day M, Langston R, Morris RGM. Glutamate-receptor-mediated encoding and retrieval of paired-associate learning. Nature. 2003 Jul 10;424(6945):205–9.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Leo N, Carolus V, White JS, Kenzelmann M, Hudl M, Tolédano P, et al. Magnetoelectric inversion of domain patterns. Nature. 2018 Aug;560(7719):466–70.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Dormieux L, Kondo D. Micromechanics of Fracture and Damage. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2016.
An edited book
Lee G, editor. Advances in Automation and Robotics, Vol.1: Selected Papers from the 2011 International Conference on Automation and Robotics (ICAR 2011), Dubai, December 1–2, 2011. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2012. XVI, 668 p. (Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering; vol. 122).
A chapter in an edited book
Bartolini S, Foglia P, Prete CA. Eighth MEDEA Workshop. In: Stenström P, editor. Transactions on High-Performance Embedded Architectures and Compilers III. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2011. p. 91–2. (Lecture Notes in Computer Science).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Heart & Lung: The Journal of Acute and Critical Care.

Blog post
Fang J. Why Tropical Birds Have Fewer Chicks Than Temperate Birds [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Human Capital Management: FAA’s Reform Effort Requires a More Strategic Approach. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2003 Feb. Report No.: GAO-03-156.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Williams C. Tattooing and the Generalized Other [Doctoral dissertation]. [Edwardsville, IL]: Southern Illinois University; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Tavernise S. Trump’s Tumultuous Week? To Supporters, It Went Well. New York Times. 2017 Aug 19;A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleHeart & Lung: The Journal of Acute and Critical Care
ISSN (print)0147-9563
ISSN (online)1527-3288

Other styles