How to format your references using the Heart & Lung: The Journal of Acute and Critical Care citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Heart & Lung: The Journal of Acute and Critical Care. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lis JT. Imaging Drosophila gene activation and polymerase pausing in vivo. Nature. 2007 Nov 8;450(7167):198–202.
A journal article with 2 authors
Roberts RG, Lian OB. Dating techniques: Illuminating the past. Nature. 2015 Apr 23;520(7548):438–9.
A journal article with 3 authors
Fried SD, Bagchi S, Boxer SG. Extreme electric fields power catalysis in the active site of ketosteroid isomerase. Science. 2014 Dec 19;346(6216):1510–4.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Bhujbal SV, de Haan B, Niclou SP, de Vos P. A novel multilayer immunoisolating encapsulation system overcoming protrusion of cells. Sci Rep. 2014 Oct 31;4:6856.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Minuth WW, Strehl R, Schumacher K. Tissue Engineering. Weinheim, FRG: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2005.
An edited book
Rehm G, Uszkoreit H, editors. The Norwegian Language in the Digital Age: Nynorskversjon. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2012. VI, 81 p. 24 illus. in color. (White Paper Series).
A chapter in an edited book
Shahid A, Wilkinson K, Marcu S, Shapiro CM. Athens Insomnia Scale (AIS). In: Shahid A, Wilkinson K, Marcu S, Shapiro CM, editors. STOP, THAT and One Hundred Other Sleep Scales. New York, NY: Springer; 2012. p. 53–4.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Heart & Lung: The Journal of Acute and Critical Care.

Blog post
Andrew E. MRI Study Finds That Infants Experience Pain In The Same Way Adults Do [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Review of the Transportation Security Administration’s Air Cargo Screening Exemptions Report. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2008 Aug. Report No.: GAO-08-1055R.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
John SP. Drying without Dying: The Resurrection Fern Pleopeltis polypodioides [Doctoral dissertation]. [ Lafayette, LA]: University of Louisiana; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hodara S. The (Forever) New Romantics. New York Times. 2016 Apr 17;CT9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleHeart & Lung: The Journal of Acute and Critical Care
ISSN (print)0147-9563
ISSN (online)1527-3288

Other styles