How to format your references using the Heart & Lung citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Heart & Lung. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Barber RT. Oceans. Picoplankton do some heavy lifting. Science. 2007;315(5813):777-778.
A journal article with 2 authors
Barthelme D, Sauer RT. Identification of the Cdc48•20S proteasome as an ancient AAA+ proteolytic machine. Science. 2012;337(6096):843-846.
A journal article with 3 authors
Schnupp JW, Mrsic-Flogel TD, King AJ. Linear processing of spatial cues in primary auditory cortex. Nature. 2001;414(6860):200-204.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Niu F, Silver PG, Nadeau RM, McEvilly TV. Migration of seismic scatterers associated with the 1993 Parkfield aseismic transient event. Nature. 2003;426(6966):544-548.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Klee L. International Construction Contract Law. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2015.
An edited book
Nguyen L, Hippenmeyer S, eds. Cellular and Molecular Control of Neuronal Migration. Vol 800. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
Schweingruber FH, Börner A, Schulze E-D. Ontogeny of the Xylem. In: Börner A, Schulze E-D, eds. Atlas of Stem Anatomy in Herbs, Shrubs and Trees: Volume 2. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2013:371-381.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Heart & Lung.

Blog post
O`Callaghan J. NASA Has Seen “Spiders” Forming On Mars For The First Time. IFLScience. Published December 22, 2016. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Questions Designed To Aid Managers and Auditors in Assessing the ADP Planning Process. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1982.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lytle SC. Giving voice to the past: New editions of select repertoire of the 26th Regiment Band, North Carolina troops, C.S.A. 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kenigsberg B. The Wasted Times. New York Times. December 15, 2016:C13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleHeart & Lung
ISSN (print)0147-9563

Other styles