How to format your references using the Heart & Lung citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Heart & Lung. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gregersen PK. Genetics. A genomic road map for complex human disease. Science. 2014;343(6175):1087-1088.
A journal article with 2 authors
O’Neill LAJ, Hardie DG. Metabolism of inflammation limited by AMPK and pseudo-starvation. Nature. 2013;493(7432):346-355.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kagawa F, Miyagawa K, Kanoda K. Unconventional critical behaviour in a quasi-two-dimensional organic conductor. Nature. 2005;436(7050):534-537.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Münker C, Pfänder JA, Weyer S, Büchl A, Kleine T, Mezger K. Evolution of planetary cores and the Earth-Moon system from Nb/Ta systematics. Science. 2003;301(5629):84-87.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Feyel P. Loop-Shaping Robust Control. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2013.
An edited book
Franco L, Elizondo DA, Jerez JM, eds. Constructive Neural Networks. Vol 258. Springer; 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
Görlach A. Hypoxia and Reactive Oxygen Species. In: Melillo G, ed. Hypoxia and Cancer: Biological Implications and Therapeutic Opportunities. Cancer Drug Discovery and Development. Springer; 2014:65-90.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Heart & Lung.

Blog post
Andrews R. 3D “Semantic Atlas” Of The Brain Reveals How We All Give Meaning To Words. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Small Businesses Are More Active as Inventors Than as Innovators in the Innovation Process. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1981.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Klein KA. Vocabulary acquisition via cross-situational learning. Published online 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Shpigel B. After Simmering and Stewing, Brady Returns to Roast the Browns. New York Times. October 9, 2016:D1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleHeart & Lung
ISSN (print)0147-9563

Other styles