How to format your references using the Heart & Lung citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Heart & Lung. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Reedijk J. Chemistry. Dioxygen surprises. Science. 2005;308(5730):1876-1877.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ryan RJH, Bernstein BE. Molecular biology. Genetic events that shape the cancer epigenome. Science. 2012;336(6088):1513-1514.
A journal article with 3 authors
Yang G, Pan F, Gan W-B. Stably maintained dendritic spines are associated with lifelong memories. Nature. 2009;462(7275):920-924.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Badro J, Fiquet G, Guyot F, et al. Iron partitioning in Earth’s mantle: toward a deep lower mantle discontinuity. Science. 2003;300(5620):789-791.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Korhonen J, Savolainen T, Soininen J. Deploying IPv6 in 3GPP Networks. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2013.
An edited book
Oehmichen M. Forensic Neuropathology and Associated Neurology. (Auer RN, König HG, eds.). Springer; 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
Ding Z, Liu J, Wang J. A Petri Net Based Automatic Executable Code Generation Method for Web Service Composition. In: Lu W, Cai G, Liu W, Xing W, eds. Proceedings of the 2012 International Conference on Information Technology and Software Engineering: Software Engineering & Digital Media Technology. Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering. Springer; 2013:39-48.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Heart & Lung.

Blog post
Fang J. Ancient Spider-Like Predator Resurrected. IFLScience. Published July 9, 2014. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. FBI: Advanced Communications Technologies Pose Wiretapping Challenges. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1992.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hendricks-Harris MT. Quality Induction: The Effects of Comprehensive Induction on New Teacher Retention and Job Satisfaction. Published online 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Casey N. Colombia’s Leader Is Awarded Nobel Peace Prize for Work to End 52-Year War. New York Times. October 7, 2016:A8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleHeart & Lung
ISSN (print)0147-9563

Other styles