How to format your references using the Health, Risk & Society citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Health, Risk & Society. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Fuhrer, M. S. (2009). Journal club. A physicist peels back the layers of excitement about graphene. Nature, 459(7250), 1037.
A journal article with 2 authors
Demirdöven, N., & Deutch, J. (2004). Hybrid cars now, fuel cell cars later. Science (New York, N.Y.), 305(5686), 974–976.
A journal article with 3 authors
Rebbeck, C. A., Leroi, A. M., & Burt, A. (2011). Mitochondrial capture by a transmissible cancer. Science (New York, N.Y.), 331(6015), 303.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Dixon, T. H., Amelung, F., Ferretti, A., Novali, F., Rocca, F., Dokka, R., Sella, G., Kim, S.-W., Wdowinski, S., & Whitman, D. (2006). Space geodesy: subsidence and flooding in New Orleans. Nature, 441(7093), 587–588.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Frank, P., & Ottoboni, M. A. (2011). The Dose Makes the Poison. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Moniuszko, A. (2014). Nuclear Cardiology Study Guide: A Technologist’s Review for Passing Specialty Certification Exams (B. A. Kesala, Ed.). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Wan, X., & Liu, G. (2008). Automatic Navigation System with Multiple Sensors. In D. Li (Ed.), Computer And Computing Technologies In Agriculture, Volume II: First IFIP TC 12 International Conference on Computer and Computing Technologies in Agriculture (CCTA 2007), Wuyishan, China, August 18-20, 2007 (pp. 769–776). Springer US.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Health, Risk & Society.

Blog post
Davis, J. (2016, October 26). Some Species May Be Able To Rapidly Adapt To Environmental Change By Altering Gene Expression. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1998). DOD, GSA, and NASA: Federal Acquisition Regulation--Reform of Affirmative Action in Federal Procurement (OGC-98-64). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Correa, L. (2015). Urban-rural differences in overweight and obese status among adolescents [Doctoral dissertation]. California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Takei, G. (2017, April 29). A Place Called Manzanar. New York Times, A23.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Fuhrer, 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Demirdöven & Deutch, 2004; Fuhrer, 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Demirdöven & Deutch, 2004)
  • Three authors: (Rebbeck et al., 2011)
  • 6 or more authors: (Dixon et al., 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleHealth, Risk & Society
AbbreviationHealth Risk Soc.
ISSN (print)1369-8575
ISSN (online)1469-8331
ScopePublic Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

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