How to format your references using the Health, Risk & Society citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Health, Risk & Society. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Poitrasson, F. (2009). Geochemistry. Probes of the ancient and the inaccessible. Science (New York, N.Y.), 323(5916), 882–883.
A journal article with 2 authors
Brookes, D., & Etkina, E. (2010). SPORE series winner. Physical phenomena in real time. Science (New York, N.Y.), 330(6004), 605–606.
A journal article with 3 authors
Amin, M., Farhat, M., & Baǧcı, H. (2013). A dynamically reconfigurable Fano metamaterial through graphene tuning for switching and sensing applications. Scientific Reports, 3, 2105.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Pfander, B., Moldovan, G.-L., Sacher, M., Hoege, C., & Jentsch, S. (2005). SUMO-modified PCNA recruits Srs2 to prevent recombination during S phase. Nature, 436(7049), 428–433.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lütolf-Carroll, C., Antti Pirnes, & Withers LLP. (2009). From Innovation to Cash Flows. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Lin, C. Y.-Y. (2011). National Intellectual Capital: A Comparison of 40 Countries (L. Edvinsson, Ed.). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Petrii, O. A., & Fletcher, S. (2015). The Frumkin Era in Electrochemistry. In F. Scholz (Ed.), Electrochemistry in a Divided World: Innovations in Eastern Europe in the 20th Century (pp. 49–96). Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Health, Risk & Society.

Blog post
Andrews, R. (2016, September 7). What Caused Oklahoma’s Powerful 5.6M Earthquake? IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1986). Digests of Unpublished Decisions of the Comptroller General of the United States, Vol. III, No. 2 (No. 133239). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Pulsifer, J. E. (2012). Learning from the Uighurs: Correcting Inadequate Due Process in Terrorist Financing Sanction Regimes [Doctoral dissertation]. George Washington University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse, L. (2005, November 9). Advice to New Chief From the Lesser of Two Equals: Call Me Nino. New York Times, A20.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Poitrasson, 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Brookes & Etkina, 2010; Poitrasson, 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Brookes & Etkina, 2010)
  • Three authors: (Amin et al., 2013)
  • 6 or more authors: (Pfander et al., 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleHealth, Risk & Society
AbbreviationHealth Risk Soc.
ISSN (print)1369-8575
ISSN (online)1469-8331
ScopePublic Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

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