How to format your references using the Health, Risk & Society citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Health, Risk & Society. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bird, A. (2001). Molecular biology. Methylation talk between histones and DNA. Science (New York, N.Y.), 294(5549), 2113–2115.
A journal article with 2 authors
Roberts, R. G., & Sutikna, T. (2013). Michael John Morwood (1950-2013). Nature, 500(7463), 401.
A journal article with 3 authors
Chen, D.-B., Xiao, R., & Zeng, A. (2014). Predicting the evolution of spreading on complex networks. Scientific Reports, 4, 6108.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Feuillet-Palma, C., Todorov, Y., Vasanelli, A., & Sirtori, C. (2013). Strong near field enhancement in THz nano-antenna arrays. Scientific Reports, 3, 1361.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Campbell, C. A. (2008). The One-Page Project Manager for it Projects. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Kim, H. K., Ao, S.-I., Amouzegar, M. A., & Rieger, B. B. (Eds.). (2014). IAENG Transactions on Engineering Technologies: Special Issue of the World Congress on Engineering and Computer Science 2012 (Vol. 247). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Holbrow, C. H., Lloyd, J. N., Amato, J. C., Galvez, E., & Parks, M. E. (2010). Gas Laws. In J. N. Lloyd, J. C. Amato, E. Galvez, & M. E. Parks (Eds.), Modern Introductory Physics (pp. 83–108). New York, NY: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Health, Risk & Society.

Blog post
Carpineti, A. (2017, February 1). Astronomers Have Seen The Farthest Blazars Yet. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2012). OPM Retirement Modernization: Progress Has Been Hindered by Longstanding Information Technology Management Weaknesses (No. GAO-12-430T). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ellerbrook, S. L. (2009). Exploring the efficiency and effectiveness of teacher selection tools: The effects on the total group with a focus on the gender sub-groups (Doctoral dissertation). Lindenwood University, St. Charles, MO.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rosenberg, E. (2017, April 22). American Airlines Suspends Worker After Episode on Plane. New York Times, p. A18.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Bird, 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Bird, 2001; Roberts & Sutikna, 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Roberts & Sutikna, 2013)
  • Three authors: (Chen, Xiao, & Zeng, 2014)
  • 6 or more authors: (Feuillet-Palma, Todorov, Vasanelli, & Sirtori, 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleHealth, Risk & Society
AbbreviationHealth Risk Soc.
ISSN (print)1369-8575
ISSN (online)1469-8331
ScopePublic Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

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