How to format your references using the Health Reform Observer - Observatoire des Réformes de Santé citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Health Reform Observer - Observatoire des Réformes de Santé. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Watanabe M. 2004. Networking, networking, networking, networking, networking. Nature 430(7001): 812–813.
A journal article with 2 authors
Rowley JJL, Alford RA. 2013. Hot bodies protect amphibians against chytrid infection in nature. Scientific Reports 3: 1515.
A journal article with 3 authors
Watanabe Y, Martini JE, Ohmoto H. 2000. Geochemical evidence for terrestrial ecosystems 2.6 billion years ago. Nature 408(6812): 574–578.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Kubikova L, Bosikova E, Cvikova M, Lukacova K, Scharff C, Jarvis ED. 2014. Basal ganglia function, stuttering, sequencing, and repair in adult songbirds. Scientific Reports 4: 6590.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Mead DE. 2013. Becoming a Marriage and Family Therapist. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.
An edited book
Gris M, Yang G eds. 2012. Mobile Computing, Applications, and Services: Second International ICST Conference, MobiCASE 2010, Santa Clara, CA, USA, October 25-28, 2010, Revised Selected Papers. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Ortolani F, Comminiello D, Scarpiniti M, Uncini A. 2016. Frequency-Domain Adaptive Filtering in Hypercomplex Systems. In Advances in Neural Networks: Computational Intelligence for ICT, eds. Bassis S, Esposito A, Morabito FC, Pasero E, 47–56. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Health Reform Observer - Observatoire des Réformes de Santé.

Blog post
Luntz S. 2015. Mysterious White Object Spotted On Ceres. IFLScience., as of 30 October 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2007. Federal Family Education Loan Program: Eliminating the Exceptional Performer Designation Would Result in Substantial Savings without Adversely Affecting the Loan Program. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Briseno AR. 2015. Improving school performance through family involvement: A grant project. Doctoral dissertation. Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Powell K. 2017. He’s Got It From Here. New York Times: M296.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Watanabe 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Watanabe 2004; Rowley and Alford 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Rowley and Alford 2013)
  • Three authors: (Watanabe, Martini and Ohmoto 2000)
  • 4 or more authors: (Kubikova et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleHealth Reform Observer - Observatoire des Réformes de Santé
AbbreviationHealth Reform Obs.
ISSN (online)2291-6369

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