How to format your references using the Health Reform Observer - Observatoire des Réformes de Santé citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Health Reform Observer - Observatoire des Réformes de Santé. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Stokstad E. 2000. PALEONTOLOGY: CT Sleuthing Uncovers Fossil Misfits. Science (New York, N.Y.) 288(5472): 1731.
A journal article with 2 authors
Gislason SR, Oelkers EH. 2014. Geochemistry. Carbon storage in basalt. Science (New York, N.Y.) 344(6182): 373–374.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gung Y, Panning M, Romanowicz B. 2003. Global anisotropy and the thickness of continents. Nature 422(6933): 707–711.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Nicolosi I, Caracciolo FD, Branca S, Ventura G, Chiappini M. 2014. Volcanic conduit migration over a basement landslide at Mount Etna (Italy). Scientific Reports 4: 5293.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Gallant BJ. 2006. Hazardous Waste Operations and Emergency Response Manual. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Cleland I, Guerrero L, Bravo J eds. 2015. Ambient Assisted Living. ICT-based Solutions in Real Life Situations: 7th International Work-Conference, IWAAL 2015, Puerto Varas, Chile, December 1-4, 2015, Proceedings. 1st ed. 2015. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Wackernagel W, Anand-Apte B, Singh AD. 2014. Cancer Angiogenesis. In Clinical Ophthalmic Oncology: Basic Principles and Diagnostic Techniques, eds. Singh AD, Damato B, 35–54. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Health Reform Observer - Observatoire des Réformes de Santé.

Blog post
Hale T. 2016. The Comedy Wildlife Photography Award Finalists Are Absolutely Hilarious. IFLScience., as of 30 October 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2004. Telecommunications: GSA Has Made Progress in Planning Governmentwide Program but Challenges Remain. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Cheung LC. 2017. Mixture models for left- and interval-censored data and concordance indices for composite survival outcomes. Doctoral dissertation. Washington, DC: George Washington University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
Feeney K. 2007. Ewe Go, Cheese Lovers. New York Times: NJ9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Stokstad 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Stokstad 2000; Gislason and Oelkers 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Gislason and Oelkers 2014)
  • Three authors: (Gung, Panning and Romanowicz 2003)
  • 4 or more authors: (Nicolosi et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleHealth Reform Observer - Observatoire des Réformes de Santé
AbbreviationHealth Reform Obs.
ISSN (online)2291-6369

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