How to format your references using the Health Reform Observer - Observatoire des Réformes de Santé citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Health Reform Observer - Observatoire des Réformes de Santé. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kittinger JNJ. 2014. A giant leap. Science (New York, N.Y.) 345(6192): 110.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sekkal W, Zaoui A. 2013. Nanoscale analysis of the morphology and surface stability of calcium carbonate polymorphs. Scientific Reports 3: 1587.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gugliotti LA, Feldheim DL, Eaton BE. 2004. RNA-mediated metal-metal bond formation in the synthesis of hexagonal palladium nanoparticles. Science (New York, N.Y.) 304(5672): 850–852.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Peleg S, Sananbenesi F, Zovoilis A, Burkhardt S, Bahari-Javan S, Agis-Balboa RC, Cota P, Wittnam JL, Gogol-Doering A, Opitz L, Salinas-Riester G, Dettenhofer M, Kang H, Farinelli L, Chen W, Fischer A. 2010. Altered histone acetylation is associated with age-dependent memory impairment in mice. Science (New York, N.Y.) 328(5979): 753–756.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Machner H. 2005. Einführung in die Kern- und Elementarteilchenphysik. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Holz FG, Spaide R eds. 2010. Medical Retina: Focus on Retinal Imaging. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Bliem B, Pichler R, Woltran S. 2013. Declarative Dynamic Programming as an Alternative Realization of Courcelle’s Theorem. In Parameterized and Exact Computation: 8th International Symposium, IPEC 2013, Sophia Antipolis, France, September 4-6, 2013, Revised Selected Papers, eds. Gutin G, Szeider S, 28–40. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Health Reform Observer - Observatoire des Réformes de Santé.

Blog post
Andrew D. 2015. Watch How This Insanely Clever Orca Catches A Bird. IFLScience., as of 30 October 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1997. NASA Procurement: Contract Management Oversight. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Patil AV. 2017. Programming QR code scanner, communicating Android devices, and unit testing in fortified cards. Doctoral dissertation. Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sisario B, Alter A. 2016. Ever Reticent, Nobel Laureate Dylan Maintains Silence. New York Times: A16.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Kittinger 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Kittinger 2014; Sekkal and Zaoui 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Sekkal and Zaoui 2013)
  • Three authors: (Gugliotti, Feldheim and Eaton 2004)
  • 4 or more authors: (Peleg et al. 2010)

About the journal

Full journal titleHealth Reform Observer - Observatoire des Réformes de Santé
AbbreviationHealth Reform Obs.
ISSN (online)2291-6369

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