How to format your references using the Health & Justice citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Health & Justice. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Crowder, R. (2006). Applied physics. Toward robots that can sense texture by touch. Science (New York, N.Y.), 312(5779), 1478–1479.
A journal article with 2 authors
Schmidt, M., & Lipson, H. (2009). Distilling free-form natural laws from experimental data. Science (New York, N.Y.), 324(5923), 81–85.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gauld, S. B., Dal Porto, J. M., & Cambier, J. C. (2002). B cell antigen receptor signaling: roles in cell development and disease. Science (New York, N.Y.), 296(5573), 1641–1642.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Tsong, A. E., Tuch, B. B., Li, H., & Johnson, A. D. (2006). Evolution of alternative transcriptional circuits with identical logic. Nature, 443(7110), 415–420.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kwok, S. (2011). Organic Matter in the Universe. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Sargis, E. J., & Dagosto, M. (Eds.). (2008). Mammalian Evolutionary Morphology: A Tribute to Frederick S. Szalay. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Rees, D. A. S., Selim, A., & Ennis-King, J. P. (2008). The Instability of Unsteady Boundary Layers in Porous Media. In P. Vadász (Ed.), Emerging Topics in Heat and Mass Transfer in Porous Media: From Bioengineering and Microelectronics to Nanotechnology (pp. 85–110). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Health & Justice.

Blog post
Taub, B. (2016, August 5). Exercise Gives You More Brain Cells, But Do These Push Old Memories Out Of Your Brain? IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1973). Contract Between the Advanced Research Projects Agency and the University of Kansas for a Study of the Aspects of Rapid Acculturation in the Pacific (No. B-114888). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Husted, C. L. (2008). Systematic differentiation between Dark and Light Leaders: Is a corporate criminal profile possible? (Doctoral dissertation). Capella University, Minneapolis, MN.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse, L. (2007, September 10). New Focus on the Effects of Life Tenure. New York Times, p. A20.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Crowder 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Crowder 2006; Schmidt and Lipson 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Schmidt and Lipson 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Tsong et al. 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleHealth & Justice
AbbreviationHealth Justice
ISSN (online)2194-7899

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