How to format your references using the Health & Justice citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Health & Justice. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Stone, E. C. (2001). Planetary science. News from the edge of interstellar space. Science (New York, N.Y.), 293(5527), 55–56.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ding, B., & Seeman, N. C. (2006). Operation of a DNA robot arm inserted into a 2D DNA crystalline substrate. Science (New York, N.Y.), 314(5805), 1583–1585.
A journal article with 3 authors
Church, G. M., Gao, Y., & Kosuri, S. (2012). Next-generation digital information storage in DNA. Science (New York, N.Y.), 337(6102), 1628.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Hendy, E. J., Gagan, M. K., Alibert, C. A., McCulloch, M. T., Lough, J. M., & Isdale, P. J. (2002). Abrupt decrease in tropical Pacific sea surface salinity at end of Little Ice Age. Science (New York, N.Y.), 295(5559), 1511–1514.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Langlois, P. (2013). Simulation of Complex Systems in GIS. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Gonthier, G., & Norrish, M. (Eds.). (2013). Certified Programs and Proofs: Third International Conference, CPP 2013, Melbourne, VIC, Australia, December 11-13, 2013, Proceedings (Vol. 8307). Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Formenti, E. (2013). A Survey on m-Asynchronous Cellular Automata. In J. Kari, M. Kutrib, & A. Malcher (Eds.), Cellular Automata and Discrete Complex Systems: 19th International Workshop, AUTOMATA 2013, Gießen, Germany, September 17-19, 2013. Proceedings (pp. 46–66). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Health & Justice.

Blog post
Davis, J. (2015, May 26). Researchers Discover An Island Made Almost Entirely From Fish Poo. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2007). Environmental Satellite Acquisitions: Progress and Challenges (No. GAO-07-1099T). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Large, K. G. (2008). A study of Statewide Transfer and Articulation Reporting System (STARS) approved courses completed at an Alabama community college (Doctoral dissertation). Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Lipton, E., & Buettner, R. (2016, November 18). U.S. Form Shows How Giuliani, Possible Cabinet Pick, Made His Fortune. New York Times, p. A19.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Stone 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Ding and Seeman 2006; Stone 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Ding and Seeman 2006)
  • Three or more authors: (Hendy et al. 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleHealth & Justice
AbbreviationHealth Justice
ISSN (online)2194-7899

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