How to format your references using the Health & Justice citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Health & Justice. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Budd, G. (2001). Climbing life’s tree. Nature, 412(6846), 487.
A journal article with 2 authors
Iijima, S., & Qin, L.-C. (2002). Electron microscopic characterization of silver nanowire arrays. Science (New York, N.Y.), 296(5568), 611.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ice, G. E., Budai, J. D., & Pang, J. W. L. (2011). The race to x-ray microbeam and nanobeam science. Science (New York, N.Y.), 334(6060), 1234–1239.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Schaefer, C. B., Ooi, S. K. T., Bestor, T. H., & Bourc’his, D. (2007). Epigenetic decisions in mammalian germ cells. Science (New York, N.Y.), 316(5823), 398–399.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Cooper, N., Forrest, K., & Cramp, P. (2008). Essential Guide to Generic Skills. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
An edited book
Cabestany, J., Rojas, I., & Joya, G. (Eds.). (2011). Advances in Computational Intelligence: 11th International Work-Conference on Artificial Neural Networks, IWANN 2011, Torremolinos-Málaga, Spain, June 8-10, 2011, Proceedings, Part I (Vol. 6691). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Jesteadt, W., & Leibold, L. J. (2011). Loudness in the Laboratory, Part I: Steady-State Sounds. In M. Florentine, A. N. Popper, & R. R. Fay (Eds.), Loudness (pp. 109–144). New York, NY: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Health & Justice.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014, April 3). Enceladus Now A Top Candidate For Extraterrestrial Life. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2003). Federally Funded Research at Institutions of Higher Education, an E-supplement to GAO-04-31 (No. GAO-04-223SP). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Vado, P. F. (2012). Foster Care Independence Act of 1999: A policy analysis (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Healy, J., & Schwartz, J. (2016, September 9). U.S. Suspends Pipeline Work in Tribes’ Path. New York Times, p. A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Budd 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Budd 2001; Iijima and Qin 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Iijima and Qin 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Schaefer et al. 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleHealth & Justice
AbbreviationHealth Justice
ISSN (online)2194-7899

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