How to format your references using the Head & Neck Oncology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Head & Neck Oncology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Wilson SM. Professional development for science teachers. Science. 2013;340:310–3.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Agnor CB, Hamilton DP. Neptune’s capture of its moon Triton in a binary-planet gravitational encounter. Nature. 2006;441:192–4.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Huang N, Xu Y, Jiang D. High-performance heterogeneous catalysis with surface-exposed stable metal nanoparticles. Sci Rep. 2014;4:7228.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Azaele S, Pigolotti S, Banavar JR, Maritan A. Dynamical evolution of ecosystems. Nature. 2006;444:926–8.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Allin P, Hand DJ. The Wellbeing of Nations. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2014.
An edited book
1. Baranzini A, Ramirez J, Schaerer C, Thalmann P, editors. Hedonic Methods in Housing Markets: Pricing Environmental Amenities and Segregation. New York, NY: Springer; 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Cleophas TJ, Zwinderman AH. Multiple Endpoints. In: Zwinderman AH, editor. Machine Learning in Medicine: Part Three. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2013. p. 29–36.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Head & Neck Oncology.

Blog post
1. Fang J. Enzyme Modification Means Roundworms Live Twice As Long. IFLScience. 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Highway Public-Private Partnerships: More Rigorous Up-front Analysis Could Better Secure Potential Benefits and Protect the Public Interest. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2008.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Roberts S. The Other Side of Adversity: Surviving a Destructive Leader Experience. Doctoral dissertation. George Washington University; 2019.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Sabrina Tavernise With. The Survivors Dribble Out, All With a Story to Tell. New York Times. 2002;:A10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleHead & Neck Oncology
ISSN (print)1758-3284

Other styles