How to format your references using the Head & Neck Oncology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Head & Neck Oncology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Trivedi B. The primate connection. Nature. 2010;466:S5.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Anglada-Escudé G, Tuomi M. Exoplanet detection. Comment on “Stellar activity masquerading as planets in the habitable zone of the M dwarf Gliese 581.” Science. 2015;347:1080.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Bottke WF, Vokrouhlický D, Nesvorný D. An asteroid breakup 160 Myr ago as the probable source of the K/T impactor. Nature. 2007;449:48–53.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Young L, Leonhard K, Tatsuta T, Trowsdale J, Langer T. Role of the ABC transporter Mdl1 in peptide export from mitochondria. Science. 2001;291:2135–8.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Afoakwa EO. Chocolate Science and Technology. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2016.
An edited book
1. Passerini K. Information Technology for Small Business: Managing the Digital Enterprise. New York, NY: Springer; 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Pitt JI, Hocking AD. Methods for Isolation, Enumeration and Identification. In: Hocking AD, editor. Fungi and Food Spoilage. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2009. p. 19–52.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Head & Neck Oncology.

Blog post
1. Fang J. Fin cams reveal the secret lives of sharks. IFLScience. 2014. Accessed 30 Oct 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. ADP Procurements: GSA Needs to Improve Its Review Process to Enhance Its ADP Oversight. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1991.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Sousa KL. Soul Seeking: A Crossing. Doctoral dissertation. Pacifica Graduate Institute; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Brantley B. Theater; Dancer Plays a Dancer. New York Times. 2016;:AR4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleHead & Neck Oncology
ISSN (print)1758-3284

Other styles