How to format your references using the Head & Neck Oncology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Head & Neck Oncology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Atwood G. Engineering. Phase-change materials for electronic memories. Science. 2008;321:210–1.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Zhou Z, Zhang F. A long-tailed, seed-eating bird from the Early Cretaceous of China. Nature. 2002;418:405–9.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Bannard O, Kraman M, Fearon DT. Secondary replicative function of CD8+ T cells that had developed an effector phenotype. Science. 2009;323:505–9.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Shimizu Y, Ogawa Y, Sugiura K, Takeda J-I, Sakai-Sawada K, Yanagi T, et al. A palindromic motif in the -2084 to -2078 upstream region is essential for ABCA12 promoter function in cultured human keratinocytes. Sci Rep. 2014;4:6737.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Naylor W, Laverty D, Mallett J. The Royal Marsden Hospital Handbook of Wound Management in Cancer Care. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Science Ltd; 2008.
An edited book
1. Sadeghian A, Mendel JM, Tahayori H, editors. Advances in Type-2 Fuzzy Sets and Systems: Theory and Applications. New York, NY: Springer; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Cullinane K, Cullinane S, Wang T. A Hierarchical Taxonomy of Container Ports in China and the Implications for Their Development. In: Lee PT-W, Cullinane K, editors. Dynamic Shipping and Port Development in the Globalized Economy: Volume 2: Emerging Trends in Ports. London: Palgrave Macmillan UK; 2016. p. 79–101.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Head & Neck Oncology.

Blog post
1. Evans K. UK Supermarket Trials Donating Waste Sugar To Hungry Bees. IFLScience. 2017. Accessed 30 Oct 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. School District Claim to Department of Air Force. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1979.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Bardhoshi G. The Relationship Between Assignment of Non-Counseling Duties and Burnout Among Professional School Counselors. Doctoral dissertation. George Washington University; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Mahler J, Confessore N. Puerto Rico’s Pricey Struggle. New York Times. 2015;:A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleHead & Neck Oncology
ISSN (print)1758-3284

Other styles