How to format your references using the Head & Face Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Head & Face Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Engelhardt B. Neuroscience. Blood-brain barrier differentiation. Science. 2011;334:1652–3.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Battisti DS, Naylor RL. Historical warnings of future food insecurity with unprecedented seasonal heat. Science. 2009;323:240–4.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Grassly NC, Fraser C, Garnett GP. Host immunity and synchronized epidemics of syphilis across the United States. Nature. 2005;433:417–21.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Vanacore R, Ham A-JL, Voehler M, Sanders CR, Conrads TP, Veenstra TD, et al. A sulfilimine bond identified in collagen IV. Science. 2009;325:1230–4.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Green SD. Making Sense of Construction Improvement. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell; 2011.
An edited book
1. Mitu B, Poulakidakos S, editors. Media Events: A Critical Contemporary Approach. London: Palgrave Macmillan UK; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Dattatreya GR. Decision Trees. In: Haupt SE, Pasini A, Marzban C, editors. Artificial Intelligence Methods in the Environmental Sciences. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2009. p. 77–101.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Head & Face Medicine.

Blog post
1. Luntz S. Are Your Bacteria Making You Fat? [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Missile Development: Status and Issues at the Time of the TSSAM Termination Decision. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1995 Jan. Report No.: NSIAD-95-46.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. George KG. Revisiting “The Blue Line Blues”: Transit-Oriented Development in Inner-City Areas of Los Angeles County, 2000-2016 [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Greenhouse L. The Choice Confronting the Chief Justice. New York Times. 2016 Nov 10;SR5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleHead & Face Medicine
AbbreviationHead Face Med.
ISSN (online)1746-160X
ScopeClinical Neurology
General Dentistry

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