How to format your references using the Head & Face Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Head & Face Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Putterman S. A physicist links magnetism, force and fatigue. Nature. 2008;454:257.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Diaz RJ, Rosenberg R. Spreading dead zones and consequences for marine ecosystems. Science. 2008;321:926–9.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Sim MS, Bosak T, Ono S. Large sulfur isotope fractionation does not require disproportionation. Science. 2011;333:74–7.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Kanzok SM, Fechner A, Bauer H, Ulschmid JK, Müller HM, Botella-Munoz J, et al. Substitution of the thioredoxin system for glutathione reductase in Drosophila melanogaster. Science. 2001;291:643–6.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Robertson B, Vignaux GA, Berger CEH. Interpreting Evidence. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2016.
An edited book
1. Blot J. Infinite-Horizon Optimal Control in the Discrete-Time Framework. Hayek N, editor. New York, NY: Springer; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Ahn KY, Sheard T, Fiore M, Pitts AM. System F i. In: Hasegawa M, editor. Typed Lambda Calculi and Applications: 11th International Conference, TLCA 2013, Eindhoven, The Netherlands, June 26-28, 2013 Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2013. p. 15–30.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Head & Face Medicine.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. New Species Of Penis Worm Discovered From Its Teeth [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Freight Transportation: National Policy and Strategies Can Help Improve Freight Mobility. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2008 Jan. Report No.: GAO-08-287.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Bernal E. Ethnographic research of emergent cultural themes from technology-based informal education in a museum [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Rothenberg B. A Big Step for a Tunisian, and for Arab Countries. New York Times. 2017 Jun 2;B9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleHead & Face Medicine
AbbreviationHead Face Med.
ISSN (online)1746-160X
ScopeClinical Neurology
General Dentistry

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