How to format your references using the Hawai'i Journal of Medicine & Public Health citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Hawai'i Journal of Medicine & Public Health. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hilgemann DW. Biochemistry. Oily barbarians breach ion channel gates. Science. 2004;304(5668):223-224.
A journal article with 2 authors
Clarke J, Wilhelm FK. Superconducting quantum bits. Nature. 2008;453(7198):1031-1042.
A journal article with 3 authors
Xu X, Zheng X, You H. Exceptional dinosaur fossils show ontogenetic development of early feathers. Nature. 2010;464(7293):1338-1341.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Korniss G, Novotny MA, Guclu H, Toroczkai Z, Rikvold PA. Suppressing roughness of virtual times in parallel discrete-event simulations. Science. 2003;299(5607):677-679.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Gao J. Optoelectronic Integrated Circuit Design and Device Modeling. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2010.
An edited book
de la Fuente MS. Origin, Evolution and Biogeographic History of South American Turtles. (Sterli J, Maniel I, eds.). Springer International Publishing; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
Agarwal RP, Perera K, Pinelas S. Complex Functions. In: Perera K, Pinelas S, eds. An Introduction to Complex Analysis. Springer US; 2011:28-36.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Hawai'i Journal of Medicine & Public Health.

Blog post
O`Callaghan J. Japanese Experiment To Clean Up Space Junk In Orbit Encounters Problem. IFLScience. Published February 2, 2017. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Administration of the Science Education Project “Man: A Course of Study”(MACOS). U.S. Government Printing Office; 1975.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Anderson JS. Boys in crisis: A grounded theory study of male high school dropouts in a rural setting. Published online 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
McKINLEY JC Jr. After Scrutiny, Vance Returned $32,000 to Trump Lawyer. New York Times. October 5, 2017:A20.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleHawai'i Journal of Medicine & Public Health
ISSN (print)2165-8218
ISSN (online)2165-8242

Other styles