How to format your references using the Hawai'i Journal of Medicine & Public Health citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Hawai'i Journal of Medicine & Public Health. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sur M. Breathing life into biology. Nature. 2005;436(7050):487.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kan J, Wang Y. Large and fast reversible Li-ion storages in Fe2O3-graphene sheet-on-sheet sandwich-like nanocomposites. Sci Rep. 2013;3:3502.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lacks DJ, Van Orman JA, Lesher CE. Isotope fractionation in silicate melts. Nature. 2012;482(7385):E1; discussion E1-2.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Kim BJ, Ohsumi H, Komesu T, et al. Phase-sensitive observation of a spin-orbital Mott state in Sr2IrO4. Science. 2009;323(5919):1329-1332.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Jacquenet C, Bourdon G, Boucadair M. Service Automation and Dynamic Provisioning Techniques in IP/MPLS Environments. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2008.
An edited book
Dulak J, Józkowicz A, Łoboda A, eds. Angiogenesis and Vascularisation: Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms in Health and Diseases. Vienna: Springer; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
Konstantinidis KT, Stackebrandt E. Defining Taxonomic Ranks. In: Rosenberg E, DeLong EF, Lory S, Stackebrandt E, Thompson F, eds. The Prokaryotes: Prokaryotic Biology and Symbiotic Associations. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2013:229-254.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Hawai'i Journal of Medicine & Public Health.

Blog post
Luntz S. Until Recently, Sahara Desert Hosted World’s Largest Freshwater Lake. IFLScience. Published July 1, 2015. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Transportation Infrastructure: Federal Highway Administration FY 1992 Budget Request and Highway Program Reauthorization Proposal. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1991.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Surges G. Generative Audio Systems: Musical Applications of Time-Varying Feedback Networks and Computational Aesthetics. 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly J. That Other Clinton. New York Times. January 20, 2017:BR7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleHawai'i Journal of Medicine & Public Health
ISSN (print)2165-8218
ISSN (online)2165-8242

Other styles