How to format your references using the Growth Hormone & IGF Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Growth Hormone & IGF Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
G. Ross, Obituary: Richard Dalitz (1925-2006), Nature. 440 (2006) 162.
A journal article with 2 authors
J. Shorter, S. Lindquist, Hsp104 catalyzes formation and elimination of self-replicating Sup35 prion conformers, Science. 304 (2004) 1793–1797.
A journal article with 3 authors
G.L. Willis, C. Moore, S.M. Armstrong, Parkinson’s disease, lights and melanocytes: looking beyond the retina, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 3921.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
L.A. Preston, K.C. Creager, R.S. Crosson, T.M. Brocher, A.M. Trehu, Intraslab earthquakes: dehydration of the Cascadia slab, Science. 302 (2003) 1197–1200.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
B. Abu-Jamous, R. Fa, A.K. Nandi, Integrative Cluster Analysis in Bioinformatics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2015.
An edited book
H.A.M.J. ten Have, ed., Bioethics Education in a Global Perspective: Challenges in global bioethics, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
W. Li, M. Henein, M.A. Gatzoulis, Disease of the Aorta, in: M. Henein, M.A. Gatzoulis (Eds.), Echocardiography in Adult Congenital Heart Disease, Springer, London, 2007: pp. 59–64.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Growth Hormone & IGF Research.

Blog post
E. Andrew, What Is This Bizarre Slimy Green Creature?, IFLScience. (2015).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Federal Research: Interim Assessment of the Small Business Innovation Research and Technology Transfer Programs, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1996.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
H.K. Huff, Thumb Twiddle Glossolalia: The Soumage, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M.J.O. Murphy, Friday File, New York Times. (2014) C31.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleGrowth Hormone & IGF Research
AbbreviationGrowth Horm. IGF Res.
ISSN (print)1096-6374
Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism

Other styles