How to format your references using the Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Knight RT (2007) Neuroscience. Neural networks debunk phrenology. Science 316:1578–1579
A journal article with 2 authors
Lippman Z, Martienssen R (2004) The role of RNA interference in heterochromatic silencing. Nature 431:364–370
A journal article with 3 authors
Moreira D, Le Guyader H, Philippe H (2000) The origin of red algae and the evolution of chloroplasts. Nature 405:69–72
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Murai S, Tanaka S, Dohi Y, et al (2014) The prevalence, characteristics, and clinical significance of abnormal albuminuria in patients with hypertension. Sci Rep 4:3884

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Moritz FG (2013) Electromechanical Motion Systems. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Kurian M, McCarney P (2010) Peri-urban Water and Sanitation Services: Policy, Planning and Method. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht
A chapter in an edited book
Niewiesk S (2009) Current Animal Models: Cotton Rat Animal Model. In: Griffin DE, Oldstone MBA (eds) Measles: Pathogenesis and Control. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 89–110

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology.

Blog post
Hale T (2016) Zoo Diets Are Making Monkey Gut Bacteria More Human-Like. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2010) Federal Transit Programs: Federal Transit Administration Has Opportunities to Improve Performance Accountability. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Levy MR (2009) Visual perception and Gestalt grouping in the landscape: Are Gestalt grouping prinicples reliable indicators of visual preference? Doctoral dissertation, Mississippi State University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
de la MERCED MJ (2017) Blue Apron Slashes Price For Its I.P.O. New York Times B1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleGraefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology
ISSN (print)0721-832X
ISSN (online)1435-702X
Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience
Sensory Systems

Other styles