How to format your references using the Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Abbott A (2002) A physical response to architecture. Nature 420:126
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Patterson GH, Lippincott-Schwartz J (2002) A photoactivatable GFP for selective photolabeling of proteins and cells. Science 297:1873–1877
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Winkler W, Nahvi A, Breaker RR (2002) Thiamine derivatives bind messenger RNAs directly to regulate bacterial gene expression. Nature 419:952–956
A journal article with 5 or more authors
1.
Laprise P, Lau KM, Harris KP, et al (2009) Yurt, Coracle, Neurexin IV and the Na(+),K(+)-ATPase form a novel group of epithelial polarity proteins. Nature 459:1141–1145

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Sillar KT, Picton LD, Heitler WJ (2016) The Neuroethology of Predation and Escape. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
1.
Johann A, Kruse H-P, Rupp F, Schmitz S (2013) Recent Trends in Dynamical Systems: Proceedings of a Conference in Honor of Jürgen Scheurle. Springer, Basel
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Leve FA, Hamilton BJ, Peck MA (2015) Dynamics of Momentum-Control Systems. In: Hamilton BJ, Peck MA (eds) Spacecraft Momentum Control Systems. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 57–93

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology.

Blog post
1.
Hale T (2017) Colorful Murals Cover A 1,000-Year-Old Chinese Tomb. In: IFLScience. https://www.iflscience.com/editors-blog/colorful-murals-cover-a-1000yearold-chinese-tomb/. Accessed 30 Oct 2018

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office (1999) District of Columbia Public Schools: Audit Confirms Reasonableness of Enrollment Count, but Report’s Presentation Is Unclear. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Lindeboom TN (2014) A new home for transitioning youth: A grant proposal. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Kelly RKR, whose most recent book of poems is ’ ’Not This Island Music, Literature ’ ’ Teaches, writing at Bard College (1987) I AM NOT A HALFBACK. New York Times 79

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleGraefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology
AbbreviationArbeitsphysiologie
ISSN (print)0721-832X
ISSN (online)1435-702X
ScopeOphthalmology
Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience
Sensory Systems

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