How to format your references using the GM Crops and Food: Biotechnology in Agriculture and the Food Chain citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for GM Crops and Food: Biotechnology in Agriculture and the Food Chain. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hastings A. Metapopulation persistence with age-dependent disturbance or succession. Science 2003; 301:1525–6.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lewinsohn TM, Cagnolo L. Ecology. Keystones in a tangled bank. Science 2012; 335:1449–51.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bhavsar AP, Guttman JA, Finlay BB. Manipulation of host-cell pathways by bacterial pathogens. Nature 2007; 449:827–34.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Weber CP, Gedik N, Moore JE, Orenstein J, Stephens J, Awschalom DD. Observation of spin Coulomb drag in a two-dimensional electron gas. Nature 2005; 437:1330–3.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Remy J-G, Letamendia C. LTE Standards. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2014.
An edited book
Doermann D, Tombre K, editors. Handbook of Document Image Processing and Recognition. London: Springer; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
Esmenjaud D, Dirlewanger E. Plum. In: Kole C, editor. Fruits and Nuts. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2007. page 119–35.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for GM Crops and Food: Biotechnology in Agriculture and the Food Chain.

Blog post
Andrew D. A Sixth Sense? How We Can Tell That Eyes Are Watching Us [Internet]. IFLScience2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]; Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Propriety of Payment of Transportation and Travel Expenses. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1973.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bernstein JP. Helical Symmetry. 2010;

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pilon M. Because Curlers Can Pull Muscles, Too. New York Times2014; :B15.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleGM Crops and Food: Biotechnology in Agriculture and the Food Chain
AbbreviationGM Crops
ISSN (print)1938-1999
ISSN (online)1938-2006
ScopeGeneral Medicine

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