How to format your references using the Glass Structures & Engineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Glass Structures & Engineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hede, K.: Emergency medicine: The need for speed. Nature. 503, S14-5 (2013)
A journal article with 2 authors
Pardo, M., Nurse, P.: Equatorial retention of the contractile actin ring by microtubules during cytokinesis. Science. 300, 1569–1574 (2003)
A journal article with 3 authors
Huang, J., Lesser, C.F., Lory, S.: The essential role of the CopN protein in Chlamydia pneumoniae intracellular growth. Nature. 456, 112–115 (2008)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Grohme, M.A., Schloissnig, S., Rozanski, A., Pippel, M., Young, G.R., Winkler, S., Brandl, H., Henry, I., Dahl, A., Powell, S., Hiller, M., Myers, E., Rink, J.C.: The genome of Schmidtea mediterranea and the evolution of core cellular mechanisms. Nature. 554, 56–61 (2018)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Maillard, P.: Competitive Quality Strategies. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ USA (2013)
An edited book
Schuur, E.A.G., Druffel, E., Trumbore, S.E. eds: Radiocarbon and Climate Change: Mechanisms, Applications and Laboratory Techniques. Springer International Publishing, Cham (2016)
A chapter in an edited book
Shin, H., Riaz, I.: Detection of Vehicles and Pedestrians. In: Kim, J. and Shin, H. (eds.) Algorithm & SoC Design for Automotive Vision Systems: For Smart Safe Driving System. pp. 107–142. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht (2014)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Glass Structures & Engineering.

Blog post
Andrew, E.: Watch As Scientists Attempt To Preserve A Blue Whale Heart,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Federal Research: Assessment of the Financial Audit for SEMATECH’s Activities in 1988. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (1990)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Salinsky, J.L.: Local disaster preparedness for the disabled population: Are we ready?, (2012)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner, J.: Backup Catcher’s Unlikely Three-Run Blast Helps Nationals Even Series, (2016)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Hede 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Hede 2013; Pardo and Nurse 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Pardo and Nurse 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Grohme et al. 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleGlass Structures & Engineering
ISSN (print)2363-5142
ISSN (online)2363-5150

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