How to format your references using the GIScience & Remote Sensing citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for GIScience & Remote Sensing. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
DiBiase, Roman A. 2014. “Earth Science: River Incision Revisited.” Nature 505 (7483): 294–295.
A journal article with 2 authors
Keller, Georg B., and Richard H. R. Hahnloser. 2009. “Neural Processing of Auditory Feedback during Vocal Practice in a Songbird.” Nature 457 (7226): 187–190.
A journal article with 3 authors
Coplan, Paul M., Mark Mitchnick, and Zeda F. Rosenberg. 2004. “Public Health. Regulatory Challenges in Microbicide Development.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 304 (5679): 1911–1912.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Mechsner, F., D. Kerzel, G. Knoblich, and W. Prinz. 2001. “Perceptual Basis of Bimanual Coordination.” Nature 414 (6859): 69–73.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Barron, E. N. 2013. Game Theory. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Ruiz-Amaya, Jesús. 2011. Device-Level Modeling and Synthesis of High-Performance Pipeline ADCs. Edited by Manuel Delgado-Restituto and Ángel Rodríguez-Vázquez. New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Scott-Conner, Carol E. H., and Jameson L. Chassin. 2014. “Dissecting and Suturing.” In Chassin’s Operative Strategy in General Surgery: An Expositive Atlas, edited by Carol E. H. Scott-Conner, 27–37. New York, NY: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for GIScience & Remote Sensing.

Blog post
Davis, Josh. 2016. “July 2016 Was Officially The Hottest Month Ever On Record.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1971. Involvement of the Office of Education, Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, in the Development of an Information System Called the College Suggestor. B-164031(1). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Shakya, Matina. 2017. “Planter Boxes and Rain Gardens for Urban Stormwater Management: Performance of Extended Field Application.” Doctoral dissertation, Edwardsville, IL: Southern Illinois University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Novick, Susan M. 2014. “Classy Comfort Food in Relaxed Settings.” New York Times, March 16.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (DiBiase 2014).
This sentence cites two references (DiBiase 2014; Keller and Hahnloser 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Keller and Hahnloser 2009)
  • Three authors: (Coplan, Mitchnick, and Rosenberg 2004)
  • 4 or more authors: (Mechsner et al. 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleGIScience & Remote Sensing
AbbreviationGIsci Remote Sens.
ISSN (print)1548-1603
ISSN (online)1943-7226
ScopeGeneral Earth and Planetary Sciences

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