How to format your references using the GIScience & Remote Sensing citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for GIScience & Remote Sensing. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Dissanayake, Chandrasekara. 2005. “Global Voices of Science. Of Stones and Health: Medical Geology in Sri Lanka.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 309 (5736): 883–885.
A journal article with 2 authors
Stevens, R. C., and I. A. Wilson. 2001. “Tech.Sight. Industrializing Structural Biology.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 293 (5529): 519–520.
A journal article with 3 authors
Scholz, Matthew, Chien-Chi Lo, and Patrick S. G. Chain. 2014. “Improved Assemblies Using a Source-Agnostic Pipeline for MetaGenomic Assembly by Merging (MeGAMerge) of Contigs.” Scientific Reports 4 (October): 6480.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
McGregor, Alistair P., Virginie Orgogozo, Isabelle Delon, Jennifer Zanet, Dayalan G. Srinivasan, François Payre, and David L. Stern. 2007. “Morphological Evolution through Multiple Cis-Regulatory Mutations at a Single Gene.” Nature 448 (7153): 587–590.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Tolinski, Michael. 2011. Plastics and Sustainability. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Daniels, James, and M. Rebecca Hoffman, eds. 2011. Common Musculoskeletal Problems: A Handbook. New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Andina, D., A. Vega-Corona, J. I. Seijas, and M. J. Alarcòn. 2007. “Application of Neural Networks.” In Computational Intelligence: For Engineering and Manufacturing, edited by Diego Andina and Duc Truong Pham, 93–108. Boston, MA: Springer US.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for GIScience & Remote Sensing.

Blog post
Luntz, Stephen. 2015. “Artificial Photosynthesis Yields Valuable Chemicals.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2013. Information Technology: Agencies Need to Strengthen Oversight of Multibillion Dollar Investments in Operations and Maintenance. GAO-14-66. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Buzinski, Paul. 2009. “Exploring Job Satisfaction of Long-Term Virtual Employees.” Doctoral dissertation, Phoenix, AZ: University of Phoenix.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, Michael. 1993. “Hillary Clinton Rejects Delay in Health Plan.” New York Times, April 29.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Dissanayake 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Dissanayake 2005; Stevens and Wilson 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Stevens and Wilson 2001)
  • Three authors: (Scholz, Lo, and Chain 2014)
  • 4 or more authors: (McGregor et al. 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleGIScience & Remote Sensing
AbbreviationGIsci Remote Sens.
ISSN (print)1548-1603
ISSN (online)1943-7226
ScopeGeneral Earth and Planetary Sciences

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