How to format your references using the GIScience & Remote Sensing citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for GIScience & Remote Sensing. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Eisenberg, L. 2000. “Seymour S. Kety (1915-2000).” Nature 406 (6795): 472.
A journal article with 2 authors
Zijlstra, Albert A., and Richard J. Davis. 2012. “Retrospective. Sir Bernard Lovell (1913-2012).” Science (New York, N.Y.) 337 (6100): 1307.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bußhardt, Philipp, Daniel Kunze, and Stanislav N. Gorb. 2014. “Interlocking-Based Attachment during Locomotion in the Beetle Pachnoda Marginata (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae).” Scientific Reports 4 (November): 6998.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Krause, Oliver, Stephan M. Birkmann, Tomonori Usuda, Takashi Hattori, Miwa Goto, George H. Rieke, and Karl A. Misselt. 2008. “The Cassiopeia A Supernova Was of Type IIb.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 320 (5880): 1195–1197.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Fingerloos, Frank, Josef Hegger, and Konrad Zilch. 2016. EUROCODE 2 Für Deutschland. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Albers, Susanne, Helmut Alt, and Stefan Näher, eds. 2009. Efficient Algorithms: Essays Dedicated to Kurt Mehlhorn on the Occasion of His 60th Birthday. Vol. 5760. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Zhao, Wen. 2014. “English Language Teaching in Vocational Senior Secondary Schools in China.” In English Language Education and Assessment: Recent Developments in Hong Kong and the Chinese Mainland, edited by David Coniam, 51–68. Singapore: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for GIScience & Remote Sensing.

Blog post
Fang, Janet. 2014. “Check Out This See-Through Spider.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1988. Catalog of Human Resource Development Activities, 1988. 134971. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
DeReus, Darrin L. 2012. “The Correlation between Career Anchors and Satisfaction - a Comparative Analysis of Multiple Affiliations under a Single Organizational Structure.” Doctoral dissertation, Minneapolis, MN: Capella University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Barron, James. 2017. “An Ink-Stained Reunion After Years of Digital Upheaval.” New York Times, September 5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Eisenberg 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Eisenberg 2000; Zijlstra and Davis 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Zijlstra and Davis 2012)
  • Three authors: (Bußhardt, Kunze, and Gorb 2014)
  • 4 or more authors: (Krause et al. 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleGIScience & Remote Sensing
AbbreviationGIsci Remote Sens.
ISSN (print)1548-1603
ISSN (online)1943-7226
ScopeGeneral Earth and Planetary Sciences

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