How to format your references using the Georisk: Assessment and Management of Risk for Engineered Systems and Geohazards citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Georisk: Assessment and Management of Risk for Engineered Systems and Geohazards. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Deweerdt, Sarah. 2010. “Dancing with an Escape Artist.” Nature 466 (7304): S6-7.
A journal article with 2 authors
Gatfield, David, and Elisa Izaurralde. 2004. “Nonsense-Mediated Messenger RNA Decay Is Initiated by Endonucleolytic Cleavage in Drosophila.” Nature 429 (6991): 575–578.
A journal article with 3 authors
Yang, Lina, Nuo Yang, and Baowen Li. 2013. “Reduction of Thermal Conductivity by Nanoscale 3D Phononic Crystal.” Scientific Reports 3 (January): 1143.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Singer, Tania, Ben Seymour, John P. O’Doherty, Klaas E. Stephan, Raymond J. Dolan, and Chris D. Frith. 2006. “Empathic Neural Responses Are Modulated by the Perceived Fairness of Others.” Nature 439 (7075): 466–469.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lau, Joe Y. F. 2011. An Introduction to Critical Thinking and Creativity. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Chan, Andrew T., and Elmar Detering, eds. 2013. Prospects for Chemoprevention of Colorectal Neoplasia: Emerging Role of Anti-Inflammatory Drugs. Vol. 191. Recent Results in Cancer Research. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Buskes, G., Q. Bu, and Anatoly G. Kusraev. 2007. “Bilinear Maps on Products of Vector Lattices: A Survey.” In Positivity, edited by Karim Boulabiar, Gerard Buskes, and Abdelmajid Triki, 97–126. Trends in Mathematics. Basel: Birkhäuser.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Georisk: Assessment and Management of Risk for Engineered Systems and Geohazards.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2015. “In The Push For Marketable Skills, Are We Forgetting The Beauty And Poetry Of STEM Disciplines?” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1989. Information Technology: Health Care Financing Administration’s Budget Process Needs Improvement. IMTEC-89-31. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Espinoza, Enrique. 2015. “Understanding Help-Seeking Behavior among at-Risk Latino Male High School Students.” Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gustines, George Gene. 2015. “Giving Archie a Makeover at 74.” New York Times, July 12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Deweerdt 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Deweerdt 2010; Gatfield and Izaurralde 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Gatfield and Izaurralde 2004)
  • Three authors: (Yang, Yang, and Li 2013)
  • 4 or more authors: (Singer et al. 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleGeorisk: Assessment and Management of Risk for Engineered Systems and Geohazards
ISSN (print)1749-9518
ISSN (online)1749-9526
Geotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology
Civil and Structural Engineering
Safety, Risk, Reliability and Quality
Building and Construction

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