How to format your references using the Georisk: Assessment and Management of Risk for Engineered Systems and Geohazards citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Georisk: Assessment and Management of Risk for Engineered Systems and Geohazards. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Zakon, Harold. 2004. “Physiology. Heeding the Hormonal Call.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 305 (5682): 349–350.
A journal article with 2 authors
Pokrovski, Gleb S., and Leonid S. Dubrovinsky. 2011. “The S3- Ion Is Stable in Geological Fluids at Elevated Temperatures and Pressures.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 331 (6020): 1052–1054.
A journal article with 3 authors
Dubrovinskaia, Natalia, Leonid Dubrovinsky, and Vladimir L. Solozhenko. 2007. “Comment on ‘Synthesis of Ultra-Incompressible Superhard Rhenium Diboride at Ambient Pressure.’” Science (New York, N.Y.) 318 (5856): 1550; author reply 1550.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Roberge, Aki, Paul D. Feldman, Alycia J. Weinberger, Magali Deleuil, and Jean-Claude Bouret. 2006. “Stabilization of the Disk around Beta Pictoris by Extremely Carbon-Rich Gas.” Nature 441 (7094): 724–726.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Abner, David J. 2010. The ETF Handbook. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Yoshida, Hiroyuki, Simon Warfield, and Michael W. Vannier, eds. 2013. Abdominal Imaging. Computation and Clinical Applications: 5th International Workshop, Held in Conjunction with MICCAI 2013, Nagoya, Japan, September 22, 2013. Proceedings. Vol. 8198. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Giannetti, Renato, and Margherita Velucchi. 2006. “The Demography of Manufacturing Firms (1911–1971).” In Evolution of Italian Enterprises in the 20th Century, edited by Renato Giannetti and Michelangelo Vasta, 63–86. Contributions to Economics. Heidelberg: Physica-Verlag HD.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Georisk: Assessment and Management of Risk for Engineered Systems and Geohazards.

Blog post
Hale, Tom. 2016. “This Autonomous Robot Performed Surgery On A Live Pig.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2011. Highway Trust Fund: All States Received More Funding Than They Contributed in Highway Taxes from 2005 to 2009. GAO-11-918. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Fregoso, Julio. 2015. “Through the Pipeline: Degree Aspirations of African American and Latino Males Enrolled in California Community Colleges.” Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, George. 2015. “A Title Once Held by Ruth and Berra Now Belongs To . . .” New York Times, September 24.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Zakon 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Zakon 2004; Pokrovski and Dubrovinsky 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Pokrovski and Dubrovinsky 2011)
  • Three authors: (Dubrovinskaia, Dubrovinsky, and Solozhenko 2007)
  • 4 or more authors: (Roberge et al. 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleGeorisk: Assessment and Management of Risk for Engineered Systems and Geohazards
ISSN (print)1749-9518
ISSN (online)1749-9526
Geotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology
Civil and Structural Engineering
Safety, Risk, Reliability and Quality
Building and Construction

Other styles