How to format your references using the Georisk: Assessment and Management of Risk for Engineered Systems and Geohazards citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Georisk: Assessment and Management of Risk for Engineered Systems and Geohazards. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Liechti, Kenneth M. 2015. “Materials Science. Understanding Friction in Layered Materials.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 348 (6235): 632–633.
A journal article with 2 authors
Karim, Salim S. Abdool, and Quarraisha Abdool Karim. 2010. “AIDS Research Must Link to Local Policy.” Nature 463 (7282): 733–734.
A journal article with 3 authors
Montague, P. Read, Steven E. Hyman, and Jonathan D. Cohen. 2004. “Computational Roles for Dopamine in Behavioural Control.” Nature 431 (7010): 760–767.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Wang, Y., Y. Hu, J. Meng, and C. Li. 2001. “An Ossified Meckel’s Cartilage in Two Cretaceous Mammals and Origin of the Mammalian Middle Ear.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 294 (5541): 357–361.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
de Almeida, J. P. Moitinho, and Edward A. W. Maunder. 2017. Equilibrium Finite Element Formulations. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Sahin, Karen S., and R. Steven Turner, eds. 2015. New Ground: Pushing the Boundaries of Studying Informal Learning in Science, Mathematics, and Technology. Bold Visions in Educational Research. Rotterdam: SensePublishers.
A chapter in an edited book
Lakshmikantham, Vangipuram, Srinivasa Leela, and Anatoly A. Martynyuk. 2015. “Stability of Perturbed Motion.” In Stability Analysis of Nonlinear Systems, edited by Srinivasa Leela and Anatoly A. Martynyuk, 201–252. Systems & Control: Foundations & Applications. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Georisk: Assessment and Management of Risk for Engineered Systems and Geohazards.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2015. “Nobel Scientist Tim Hunt Heavily Criticized For Sexist Remarks.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2001. Internal Control Management and Evaluation Tool: Exposure Draft (Superseded by GAO-01-1008G). GAO-01-131G. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Chen, Gang. 2005. “Essays On Using Weather Derivatives In Dairy Production.” Doctoral dissertation, Columbus, OH: Ohio State University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Feeney, Kelly. 2010. “Always on Offer: Fresh Fish, a Relaxed Vibe.” New York Times, August 8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Liechti 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Liechti 2015; Karim and Karim 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Karim and Karim 2010)
  • Three authors: (Montague, Hyman, and Cohen 2004)
  • 4 or more authors: (Wang et al. 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleGeorisk: Assessment and Management of Risk for Engineered Systems and Geohazards
ISSN (print)1749-9518
ISSN (online)1749-9526
Geotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology
Civil and Structural Engineering
Safety, Risk, Reliability and Quality
Building and Construction

Other styles