How to format your references using the Genomics & Informatics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Genomics & Informatics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Tokmakoff A. Chemistry. Shining light on the rapidly evolving structure of water. Science 2007; 317:54–55.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ichinose G, Sayama H. Evolution of fairness in the not quite ultimatum game. Sci Rep 2014; 4:5104.
A journal article with 3 authors
Flores I, Cayuela ML, Blasco MA. Effects of telomerase and telomere length on epidermal stem cell behavior. Science 2005; 309:1253–1256.
A journal article with 6 or more authors
Janzen V, Forkert R, Fleming HE, Saito Y, Waring MT, et al. Stem-cell ageing modified by the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p16INK4a. Nature 2006; 443:421–426.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Braudeau E, Assi AT, Mohtar RH. Hydrostructural Pedology. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2016.
An edited book
Grosse C, Ohtsu M, editors. Acoustic Emission Testing: Basics for Research - Applications in Civil Engineering. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
Woods D. Optical Computing and Computational Complexity. In: Unconventional Computation: 5th International Conference, UC 2006, York, UK, September 4-8, 2006. Proceedings. Calude CS, Dinneen MJ, Păun G, Rozenberg G, Stepney S (editors). . Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2006. pp. 27–40.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Genomics & Informatics.

Blog post
Andrew E. Why Is Life Left-Handed? The Answer Is In The Stars. IFLScience. 2015. (accessed 30 Oct2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Authority To Waive Claims by District of Columbia Against Employee or Former Employee. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1979.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Nguyen A. Poetry as a Museum. 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
St. John Kelly E. Springer’s Harvest. New York Times. 1998; :D10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleGenomics & Informatics
ISSN (print)1598-866X
ISSN (online)2234-0742

Other styles