How to format your references using the Genes & Immunity citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Genes & Immunity. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Long JCS. Piecemeal cuts won’t add up to radical reductions. Nature 2011; 478: 429.
A journal article with 2 authors
Veronin MA, Youan B-BC. Medicine. Magic bullet gone astray: medications and the Internet. Science 2004; 305: 481.
A journal article with 3 authors
Depew MJ, Lufkin T, Rubenstein JLR. Specification of jaw subdivisions by Dlx genes. Science 2002; 298: 381–385.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Kominis IK, Kornack TW, Allred JC, Romalis MV. A subfemtotesla multichannel atomic magnetometer. Nature 2003; 422: 596–599.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Héno R, Chandelier L. 3D Modeling of Buildings. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2014.
An edited book
Tubaro P. Against the Hypothesis of the End of Privacy: An Agent-Based Modelling Approach to Social Media. Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
Sachdev U, Tzeng E. Tips on Maintaining an Effective Lab Notebook for Bench Research. In: Kibbe MR, LeMaire SA (eds). Success in Academic Surgery: Basic Science. Springer: London, 2014, pp 51–63.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Genes & Immunity.

Blog post
Andrew D. What’s The Point Of Sex? It’s Good For Your Physical, Social And Mental Health. IFLScience. 2017. (accessed 30 Oct2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Year 2000 Computing Crisis: State Department Needs To Make Fundamental Improvements To Its Year 2000 Program. U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1998.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Tovar B. A drug and alcohol education and prevention program for Hispanic families: A grant proposal. 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Baker AL. Push to Rid City of Classrooms That Are Anything but Temporary. New York Times. 2014; : A18.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleGenes & Immunity
AbbreviationGenes Immun.
ISSN (print)1466-4879
ISSN (online)1476-5470

Other styles