How to format your references using the Genes & Immunity citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Genes & Immunity. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Weaver AJ. Climate change. Toward the second commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol. Science 2011; 332: 795–796.
A journal article with 2 authors
Stewart I, Cohen J. Monolith. Nature 2000; 408: 913.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kusano K, Johnson-Schlitz DM, Engels WR. Sterility of Drosophila with mutations in the Bloom syndrome gene--complementation by Ku70. Science 2001; 291: 2600–2602.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Kemiktarak U, Ndukum T, Schwab KC, Ekinci KL. Radio-frequency scanning tunnelling microscopy. Nature 2007; 450: 85–88.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Rasch D, Schott D. Mathematische Statistik. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA: Weinheim, Germany, 2015.
An edited book
Maldonado JK, Colombi B, Pandya R (eds.). Climate Change and Indigenous Peoples in the United States: Impacts, Experiences and Actions. Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
Egamberdieva D. Bacillus spp.: A Potential Plant Growth Stimulator and Biocontrol Agent Under Hostile Environmental Conditions. In: Islam MT, Rahman M, Pandey P, Jha CK, Aeron A (eds). Bacilli and Agrobiotechnology. Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2016, pp 91–111.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Genes & Immunity.

Blog post
Andrew E. Genetic Link Between Autism And Better Cognitive Ability Found. IFLScience. 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Index Digest of the Published Decisions of the Comptroller General of the United States, Volumes 66-70, September 1991. U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1991.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Chongkrairatanakul W. Foreign-educated nurses. 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse L. Supreme Court Allows Disabled Georgia Inmate to Proceed With Suit Against State. New York Times. 2006; : A27.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleGenes & Immunity
AbbreviationGenes Immun.
ISSN (print)1466-4879
ISSN (online)1476-5470

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