How to format your references using the Genes & Immunity citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Genes & Immunity. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Vohs KD. Psychology. The poor’s poor mental power. Science 2013; 341: 969–970.
A journal article with 2 authors
Heath RJ, Rock CO. A triclosan-resistant bacterial enzyme. Nature 2000; 406: 145–146.
A journal article with 3 authors
Xiong Q, Mukherjee S, Furey TS. GSAASeqSP: a toolset for gene set association analysis of RNA-Seq data. Sci Rep 2014; 4: 6347.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Pica P, Lemer C, Izard V, Dehaene S. Exact and approximate arithmetic in an Amazonian indigene group. Science 2004; 306: 499–503.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Cragg PJ. A Practical Guide to Supramolecular Chemistry. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd: Chichester, UK, 2006.
An edited book
Schmidt U, Traub S (eds.). Advances in Public Economics: Utility, Choice and Welfare: A Festschrift for Christian Seidl. Springer US: Boston, MA, 2005.
A chapter in an edited book
Sekitoleko N, Evbota F, Knauss E, Sandberg A, Chaudron M, Olsson HH. Technical Dependency Challenges in Large-Scale Agile Software Development. In: Cantone G, Marchesi M (eds). Agile Processes in Software Engineering and Extreme Programming: 15th International Conference, XP 2014, Rome, Italy, May 26-30, 2014. Proceedings. Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2014, pp 46–61.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Genes & Immunity.

Blog post
Carpineti A. Europa Is Even More Similar To Earth Than We Thought. IFLScience. 2016. (accessed 30 Oct2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Bridge Safety: Structural Soundness of the Zilwaukee Bridge. U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1988.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kotch S. Unduly harsh and unworkably rigid: The death penalty in North Carolina, 1910–1961. 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Murphy MJO. Opening Night for ‘Arsenic and Old Lace’. New York Times. 2015; : C28.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleGenes & Immunity
AbbreviationGenes Immun.
ISSN (print)1466-4879
ISSN (online)1476-5470

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