How to format your references using the Genes & Diseases citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Genes & Diseases. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Helfand SL. Neurobiology. Chaperones take flight. Science. 2002;295(5556):809-810.
A journal article with 2 authors
Chen W, Du J. Ultrasound and pH dually responsive polymer vesicles for anticancer drug delivery. Sci Rep. 2013;3:2162.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wu J, Zhang C, Qiao H. The significance of p40 expression in sclerosing hemangioma of lung. Sci Rep. 2014;4:6102.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Jin C, Zhang J, Li X, Yang X, Li J, Liu J. Injectable 3-D fabrication of medical electronics at the target biological tissues. Sci Rep. 2013;3:3442.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Parke RD. Future Families. John Wiley & Sons; 2013.
An edited book
Tessman L, ed. Feminist Ethics and Social and Political Philosophy: Theorizing the Non-Ideal. Springer Netherlands; 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
Mah KK, Cheng HM. Respiratory Recreation. In: Cheng HM, ed. Learning and Teaching Tools for Basic and Clinical Respiratory Physiology. SpringerBriefs in Physiology. Springer International Publishing; 2015:39-50.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Genes & Diseases.

Blog post
O`Callaghan J. NASA Is Not Changing The Signs Of The Zodiac (But Your Horoscope Is Still Meaningless). IFLScience. Published September 19, 2016. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Performance Management in Higher Education. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1976.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ball-Miles NM. The relationship between witnessing verbal marital conflict as a child and the behavioral anger responses in adulthood. Published online 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Howe SH. Mandan Territory, U.S.A. New York Times. August 6, 1904:PART TWO SATURDAY REVIEW OF BOOKSBR534.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleGenes & Diseases
AbbreviationGenes Dis.
ISSN (print)2352-3042

Other styles