How to format your references using the Genes & Diseases citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Genes & Diseases. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Rubin MA. Tech.Sight. Understanding disease cell by cell. Science. 2002;296(5571):1329-1330.
A journal article with 2 authors
Muoio DM, Newgard CB. Biomedicine. Insulin resistance takes a trip through the ER. Science. 2004;306(5695):425-426.
A journal article with 3 authors
Castro-Camus E, Palomar M, Covarrubias AA. Leaf water dynamics of Arabidopsis thaliana monitored in-vivo using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy. Sci Rep. 2013;3:2910.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Kjelstrup KB, Solstad T, Brun VH, et al. Finite scale of spatial representation in the hippocampus. Science. 2008;321(5885):140-143.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Imrie R, Street E. Architectural Design and Regulation. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishing Ltd.; 2011.
An edited book
Shi YQ, Kim H-J, Perez-Gonzalez F, eds. Digital Forensics and Watermarking: 10th International Workshop, IWDW 2011, Atlantic City, NY, October 23-26, 2011, Revised Selected Papers. Vol 7128. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
Pintea C-M, Pop PC. Sensor Networks Security Based on Sensitive Robots Agents: A Conceptual Model. In: Herrero Á, Snášel V, Abraham A, et al., eds. International Joint Conference CISIS’12-ICEUTE´12-SOCO´12 Special Sessions. Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2013:47-56.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Genes & Diseases.

Blog post
Andrew E. Kepler Team Announces Discovery of Earth-Sized Planet in Habitable Zone. IFLScience. Published April 17, 2014. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Influence Of Public Affairs Organizations On Information And Advertising Programs. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1971.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wirtz Y. Strain Variation between the Monterey and Sisquoc Formations, Southern Santa Maria Basin, California, USA: Implications for Structural Assessment of Fold and Thrust Belts. 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Eligon J, Alcindor Y, Armendariz A. Tax Credits to House Poor Reinforce Racial Divisions. New York Times. July 2, 2017:A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleGenes & Diseases
AbbreviationGenes Dis.
ISSN (print)2352-3042

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