How to format your references using the Genes & Diseases citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Genes & Diseases. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Perepezko JH. Materials science. The hotter the engine, the better. Science. 2009;326(5956):1068-1069.
A journal article with 2 authors
Levitan IB, Cibulsky SM. Biochemistry. TRP ion channels--two proteins in one. Science. 2001;293(5533):1270-1271.
A journal article with 3 authors
Sanders TA, Llagostera E, Barna M. Specialized filopodia direct long-range transport of SHH during vertebrate tissue patterning. Nature. 2013;497(7451):628-632.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Ma JF, Tamai K, Yamaji N, et al. A silicon transporter in rice. Nature. 2006;440(7084):688-691.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Cooke R. Classical Algebra: Its Nature, Origins, and Uses. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2007.
An edited book
Nungu A, Pehrson B, Sansa-Otim J, eds. E-Infrastructure and e-Services for Developing Countries: 6th International Conference, AFRICOMM 2014, Kampala, Uganda, November 24-25, 2014, Revised Selected Papers. Vol 147. Springer International Publishing; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Wehrmeister MA, Berkenbrock GR. Automatic Execution of Test Cases on UML Models of Embedded Systems. In: Schirner G, Götz M, Rettberg A, Zanella MC, Rammig FJ, eds. Embedded Systems: Design, Analysis and Verification: 4th IFIP TC 10 International Embedded Systems Symposium, IESS 2013, Paderborn, Germany, June 17-19, 2013. Proceedings. IFIP Advances in Information and Communication Technology. Springer; 2013:39-48.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Genes & Diseases.

Blog post
Hamilton K. Watch SpaceX Launch Their Reusable Rocket LIVE. IFLScience. Published April 13, 2015. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Federal Agencies’ Contracting for Research and Development in the Private, Profitmaking Sector. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1977.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Shafran RF. Leading Organizational Change: A Phenomenological Study of the Nonlinear Strategies Used by Female Leaders in Global Companies. Published online 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Feeney K. QUICK BITE | Chester; Cider, From Doughnuts to Hot Dogs. New York Times. October 8, 2006:14NJ19.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleGenes & Diseases
AbbreviationGenes Dis.
ISSN (print)2352-3042

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