How to format your references using the Genes & Cancer citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Genes & Cancer. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gaston KJ. Sustainability: A green light for efficiency. Nature. 2013; 497: 560–1.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kalia J, Swartz KJ. Exploring structure-function relationships between TRP and Kv channels. Sci Rep. 2013; 3: 1523.
A journal article with 3 authors
Cho G, Wu Y, Ackerman JL. Detection of hydroxyl ions in bone mineral by solid-state NMR spectroscopy. Science. 2003; 300: 1123–7.
A journal article with 14 or more authors
Song N-N, Yang H-T, Liu H-L, Ren X, Ding H-F, Zhang X-Q, Cheng Z-H. Exceeding natural resonance frequency limit of monodisperse Fe(3)O(4) nanoparticles via superparamagnetic relaxation. Sci Rep. 2013; 3: 3161.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Shinohara H, Tagmatarchis N. Endohedral Metallofullerenes. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2015.
An edited book
Vinyard C, Ravosa MJ, Wall C, editors. Primate Craniofacial Function and Biology. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2008. XXIV, 496 p p.
A chapter in an edited book
Vola M, Fuzellier J-F. The History of Pulmonary Embolectomy Before the Advent of CPB. In: Picichè M, editor. Dawn and Evolution of Cardiac Procedures: Research Avenues in Cardiac Surgery and Interventional Cardiology. Milano: Springer; 2013. p. 29–33.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Genes & Cancer.

Blog post
Andrew E. Automatic Sperm Extractor Introduced Into A Chinese Hospital. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014. Available 2018 Oct 30, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. GAO’s Need for an Interim Management Data System (MDS). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1979 Feb. Report No.: B-161744.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wenger MC. Free-choice family learning experiences at informal astronomy observing events [Doctoral dissertation]. [Tucson, AZ]: University of Arizona; 2011.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
MacFARQUHAR N, Kramer AE. Putin Sees Path to Diplomacy Through Syria. New York Times. 2015; : A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleGenes & Cancer
AbbreviationGenes Cancer
ISSN (online)1947-6027
ScopeCancer Research

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