How to format your references using the Genes & Cancer citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Genes & Cancer. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kanwisher N. Neuroscience. What’s in a face? Science. 2006; 311: 617–8.
A journal article with 2 authors
Schulz C, Rehling P. Cell biology. Powering the cell cycle. Science. 2014; 346: 1059–60.
A journal article with 3 authors
Thomson KS, Sutton M, Thomas B. A larval Devonian lungfish. Nature. 2003; 426: 833–4.
A journal article with 14 or more authors
Yokoya T, Nakamura T, Matsushita T, Muro T, Takano Y, Nagao M, Takenouchi T, Kawarada H, Oguchi T. Origin of the metallic properties of heavily boron-doped superconducting diamond. Nature. 2005; 438: 647–50.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Singleton TW, Singleton AJ. Fraud Auditing and Forensic Accounting. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2010.
An edited book
Zhang X, Sun M, Wang Z, Huang X, editors. Social Media Processing: 4th National Conference, SMP 2015, Guangzhou, China, November 16-17, 2015, Proceedings. Singapore: Springer; 2015. XIV, 242 p. 76 illus. in color p.
A chapter in an edited book
VanderZaag A, Amon B, Bittman S, Kuczyński T. Ammonia Abatement with Manure Storage and Processing Techniques. In: Reis S, Howard C, Sutton MA, editors. Costs of Ammonia Abatement and the Climate Co-Benefits. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2015. p. 75–112.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Genes & Cancer.

Blog post
Andrew E. Slowdown Of Brain’s Waste Removal System Could Drive Alzheimer’s. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015. Available 2018 Oct 30, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. The Readiness Goal. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1992 Jan. Report No.: 147977.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
McCarthy BA. Mentoring’s critical components: Four traditional teachers’, four alternate -route teachers’, and four mentors’ perspectives [Doctoral dissertation]. [Minneapolis, MN]: Capella University; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Schmidt MS, Haberman M, Apuzzo M. Wary of Mueller, Trump’s Team Is Investigating His Investigators. New York Times. 2017; : A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleGenes & Cancer
AbbreviationGenes Cancer
ISSN (online)1947-6027
ScopeCancer Research

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