How to format your references using the Genes & Cancer citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Genes & Cancer. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Fabian AC. Astronomy. Variable high-energy gamma rays from the elliptical galaxy M87. Science. 2006; 314: 1398–9.
A journal article with 2 authors
Rodríguez-Trelles F, Rodríguez MA. Comment on “Global genetic change tracks global climate warming in Drosophila subobscura.” Science. 2007; 315: 1497; author reply 1497.
A journal article with 3 authors
Westover KD, Bushnell DA, Kornberg RD. Structural basis of transcription: separation of RNA from DNA by RNA polymerase II. Science. 2004; 303: 1014–6.
A journal article with 14 or more authors
Dinh HT, Kuever J, Mussmann M, Hassel AW, Stratmann M, Widdel F. Iron corrosion by novel anaerobic microorganisms. Nature. 2004; 427: 829–32.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Zarbock G, Lynch S, Ammann A, Ringer S. Mindfulness for Therapists. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons Ltd; 2014.
An edited book
Crowder JA. Systems Engineering Agile Design Methodologies. Friess S, editor. New York, NY: Springer; 2013. IX, 78 p. 28 illus p.
A chapter in an edited book
Hu M, Penney GP, Rueckert D, Edwards PJ, Bello F, Casula R, Figl M, Hawkes DJ. Non-rigid Reconstruction of the Beating Heart Surface for Minimally Invasive Cardiac Surgery. In: Yang G-Z, Hawkes D, Rueckert D, Noble A, Taylor C, editors. Medical Image Computing and Computer-Assisted Intervention – MICCAI 2009: 12th International Conference, London, UK, September 20-24, 2009, Proceedings, Part I. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2009. p. 34–42.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Genes & Cancer.

Blog post
Andrew E. Fact Over Fiction On The ‘Apocalyptic’ Super Blood Moon. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015. Available 2018 Oct 30, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Telecommunications: Weaknesses in Procedures and Performance Management Hinder Junk Fax Enforcement. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2006 Apr. Report No.: GAO-06-425.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ray-Dulany WR. Base change for the Iwahori-Hecke algebra of GL2 [Doctoral dissertation]. [College Park, MD]: University of Maryland, College Park; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner J. Backman Will Not Return as Mets’ Class AAA Manager. New York Times. 2016; : B11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleGenes & Cancer
AbbreviationGenes Cancer
ISSN (online)1947-6027
ScopeCancer Research

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