How to format your references using the Gene: X citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Gene: X. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik, P., 2003. Wrapped in red tape. Nature 423, 783.
A journal article with 2 authors
Chi, A.S., Bernstein, B.E., 2009. Developmental biology. Pluripotent chromatin state. Science 323, 220–221.
A journal article with 3 authors
Li, Y., Zhang, X., Cao, D., 2013. The role of shape complementarity in the protein-protein interactions. Sci. Rep. 3, 3271.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Osaka, M., Yaoi, K., Minamoto, T., Osaka, N., 2013. When do negative and positive emotions modulate working memory performance? Sci. Rep. 3, 1375.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Adámek, J., 1991. Foundations of Coding. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Baranauskas, C., Palanque, P., Abascal, J., Barbosa, S.D.J. (Eds.), 2007. Human-Computer Interaction – INTERACT 2007: 11th IFIP TC 13 International Conference, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, September 10-14, 2007, Proceedings, Part II, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Houmani, H., Rabhi, M., Abdelly, C., Debez, A., 2015. Implication of Rhizosphere Acidification in Nutrient Uptake by Plants: Cases of Potassium (K), Phosphorus (P), and Iron (Fe), in: Hakeem, K.R. (Ed.), Crop Production and Global Environmental Issues. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 103–122.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Gene: X.

Blog post
Taub, B., 2016. Hangover-Free Alcohol Could Replace Normal Booze By 2050 [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1975. Ways To Improve Management of Automated Data Processing Resources (No. LCD-74-110). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Krishna, V., 2008. Exploring organizational commitment from an organizational perspective: Organizational learning as a determinant of affective commitment in Indian software firms (Doctoral dissertation). George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hollander, S., 2002. For Pfluger, a Career of Achievement. New York Times D4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Smaglik, 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Chi and Bernstein, 2009; Smaglik, 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Chi and Bernstein, 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Osaka et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleGene: X
ISSN (print)2590-1583

Other styles