How to format your references using the Gene: X citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Gene: X. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Grünbaum, D., 2006. Behavior. Align in the sand. Science 312, 1320–1322.
A journal article with 2 authors
Weston, E.M., Lister, A.M., 2009. Insular dwarfism in hippos and a model for brain size reduction in Homo floresiensis. Nature 459, 85–88.
A journal article with 3 authors
Templeton, C.N., Greene, E., Davis, K., 2005. Allometry of alarm calls: black-capped chickadees encode information about predator size. Science 308, 1934–1937.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Korb, J., Weil, T., Hoffmann, K., Foster, K.R., Rehli, M., 2009. A gene necessary for reproductive suppression in termites. Science 324, 758.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Matte, G.S., 2015. Perfusion for Congenital Heart Surgery. John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Inverardi, P., Jazayeri, M. (Eds.), 2006. Software Engineering Education in the Modern Age: Software Education and Training Sessions at the International Conference on Software Engineering, ICSE 2005, St. Louis, MO, USA, May 15-21, 2005, Revised Lectures, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Gruba, P., Cárdenas-Claros, M.S., Suvorov, R., Rick, K., 2016. Meso-Level Evaluation, in: Cárdenas-Claros, M.S., Suvorov, R., Rick, K. (Eds.), Blended Language Program Evaluation. Palgrave Macmillan UK, London, pp. 65–84.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Gene: X.

Blog post
Andrew, D., 2017. How Forensic Science Can Unlock The Mysteries Of Human Evolution [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2006. Highlights of a GAO Forum: Managing the Supplier Base in the 21st Century (No. GAO-06-533SP). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Springborn, T., 2017. The Importance of Teacher/Student Relationships (Doctoral dissertation). Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville, IL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kenigsberg, B., 2017. I Am Another You. New York Times C4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Grünbaum, 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Grünbaum, 2006; Weston and Lister, 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Weston and Lister, 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Korb et al., 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleGene: X
ISSN (print)2590-1583

Other styles