How to format your references using the Gene: X citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Gene: X. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Fabian, N., 2015. Economics: support low-carbon investment. Nature 519, 27–29.
A journal article with 2 authors
Reid, G., Flonta, M.L., 2001. Physiology. Cold current in thermoreceptive neurons. Nature 413, 480.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bartels, T., Choi, J.G., Selkoe, D.J., 2011. α-Synuclein occurs physiologically as a helically folded tetramer that resists aggregation. Nature 477, 107–110.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Wang, H., Ma, L.G., Li, J.M., Zhao, H.Y., Deng, X.W., 2001. Direct interaction of Arabidopsis cryptochromes with COP1 in light control development. Science 294, 154–158.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Gordon, M.J., Jr., 2010. Total Quality Process Control for Injection Molding. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Tzfira, T., 2005. Nuclear Import and Export in Plants and Animals, Molecular Biology Intelligence Unit. Springer US, Boston, MA.
A chapter in an edited book
Choi, Y.-K., Kim, C.-H., Ahn, J.-H., Kim, J.-Y., Kim, S., 2013. Dielectric Detection Using Biochemical Assays, in: Issadore, D., Westervelt, R.M. (Eds.), Point-of-Care Diagnostics on a Chip, Biological and Medical Physics, Biomedical Engineering. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 97–123.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Gene: X.

Blog post
Davis, J., 2016. Pinching Figs Could Help Explain The Origin Of Our Fine Motor Skills [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2008. NASA: Agency Faces Challenges Defining Scope and Costs of Space Shuttle Transition and Retirement (No. GAO-08-1096). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Stevenson, M., 2008. A change for the future: Presidents and deans real and ideal leadership practices at community and junior colleges in Mississippi (Doctoral dissertation). Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Billard, M., 2013. Out of Character, but in His Element. New York Times E7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Fabian, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Fabian, 2015; Reid and Flonta, 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Reid and Flonta, 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Wang et al., 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleGene: X
ISSN (print)2590-1583

Other styles