How to format your references using the Gait & Posture citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Gait & Posture. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
J. von Braun, Strategic body needed to beat food crises, Nature. 465 (2010) 548–549.
A journal article with 2 authors
G.A. Vecchi, G. Villarini, Atmosphere. Next season’s hurricanes, Science. 343 (2014) 618–619.
A journal article with 3 authors
R. Daw, J. Finkelstein, M. Helmer, Chemistry and energy, Nature. 488 (2012) 293.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
K. Del Punta, T. Leinders-Zufall, I. Rodriguez, D. Jukam, C.J. Wysocki, S. Ogawa, F. Zufall, P. Mombaerts, Deficient pheromone responses in mice lacking a cluster of vomeronasal receptor genes, Nature. 419 (2002) 70–74.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
J.J. Vento, Financial Independence (Getting to Point X ), John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2013.
An edited book
F. Bonchi, E. Ferrari, B. Malin, Y. Saygin, eds., Privacy, Security, and Trust in KDD: First ACM SIGKDD International Workshop, PinKDD 2007, San Jose, CA, USA, August 12, 2007, Revised Selected Papers, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
M.S. Christofferson, “The Best Help I Could Find to Understand Our Present”: François Furet’s Antirevolutionary Reading of Tocqueville’s Democracy in America, in: S.W. Sawyer, I. Stewart (Eds.), In Search of the Liberal Moment: Democracy, Anti-Totalitarianism, and Intellectual Politics in France since 1950, Palgrave Macmillan US, New York, NY, 2016: pp. 85–109.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Gait & Posture.

Blog post
S. Luntz, Branching Heat Lines Could Improve Energy Storage, IFLScience. (2015). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Direct Student Loans: Efforts to Resolve Lenders’ Problems With Consolidations Are Under Way, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1998.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
J.M. Tuinenga, John Corigliano’s Sonata for violin and piano: An analysis of context, structure, and style, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
S. Kercher, From Metaphysical to Mainstream, New York Times. (2015) ST10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleGait & Posture
AbbreviationGait Posture
ISSN (print)0966-6362
Orthopedics and Sports Medicine

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