How to format your references using the Gait & Posture citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Gait & Posture. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
J. Qiu, Climatology. Monsoon melee, Science. 340 (2013) 1400–1401.
A journal article with 2 authors
R.N. Kulkarni, C.R. Kahn, Molecular biology. HNFs--linking the liver and pancreatic islets in diabetes, Science. 303 (2004) 1311–1312.
A journal article with 3 authors
W.W.L. Cheung, R. Watson, D. Pauly, Signature of ocean warming in global fisheries catch, Nature. 497 (2013) 365–368.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
J.S. Chen, L. Li, J.Y. Wang, D.A. Barry, X.F. Sheng, W.Z. Gu, X. Zhao, L. Chen, Water resources: groundwater maintains dune landscape, Nature. 432 (2004) 459–460.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
V. Cunningham, Victorian Poetry Now, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2011.
An edited book
M. Dai, ed., Innovative Computing and Information: International Conference, ICCIC 2011, Wuhan, China, September 17-18, 2011. Proceedings, Part II, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
J.-E. Kim, M. Bessho, N. Koshizuka, K. Sakamura, SaSYS: A Swipe Gesture-Based System for Exploring Urban Environments for the Visually Impaired, in: G. Memmi, U. Blanke (Eds.), Mobile Computing, Applications, and Services: 5th International Conference, MobiCASE 2013, Paris, France, November 7-8, 2013, Revised Selected Papers, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2014: pp. 54–71.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Gait & Posture.

Blog post
E. Andrew, Strange Tale Of Fish Eye Evolution Shows How New Species Could Be Born, IFLScience. (2015).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Student Loans: Default Rates Need To Be Computed More Appropriately, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1999.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
B. Dale, Changing how we change: A case study of Escondido Union School District, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M. Santora, S.M. Nir, A New Crime Surfaces in a Socialite’s Death, New York Times. (2016) A17.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleGait & Posture
AbbreviationGait Posture
ISSN (print)0966-6362
Orthopedics and Sports Medicine

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