How to format your references using the Gait & Posture citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Gait & Posture. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
J. Merilä, Evolution. Genetic constraints on adaptation?, Science. 325 (2009) 1212–1213.
A journal article with 2 authors
D. Kennedy, C. Norman, What don’t we know?, Science. 309 (2005) 75.
A journal article with 3 authors
R.B. Roberts, J.R. Ser, T.D. Kocher, Sexual conflict resolved by invasion of a novel sex determiner in Lake Malawi cichlid fishes, Science. 326 (2009) 998–1001.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
G. Falci, R. Fazio, G.M. Palma, J. Siewert, V. Vedral V., Detection of geometric phases in superconducting nanocircuits, Nature. 407 (2000) 355–358.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
C.L. Rao, V. Narayanamurthy, K.R.Y. Simha, Applied Impact Mechanics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2016.
An edited book
Z. Kotulski, B. Księżopolski, K. Mazur, eds., Cryptography and Security Systems: Third International Conference, CSS 2014, Lublin, Poland, September 22-24, 2014. Proceedings, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
S. Harding, Interrogating the Modernity vs. Tradition Contrast: Whose Science and Technology for Whose Social Progress?, in: H.E. Grasswick (Ed.), Feminist Epistemology and Philosophy of Science: Power in Knowledge, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 2011: pp. 85–108.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Gait & Posture.

Blog post
A. Carpineti, ESA’s Gaia Spacecraft Reveals Most Accurate Map Of The Milky Way, IFLScience. (2016).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Chief Information Officers: Responsibilities and Information Technology Governance at Leading Private-Sector Companies, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2005.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
S. Chakravarty, Harvesting health: Fertilizer, nutrition and AIDS treatment in Kenya, Doctoral dissertation, Columbia University, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M. Kelly, THE 1992 CAMPAIGN: The Democrats; As Race Looks Tighter, Theme Is Truth and Trust, New York Times. (1992) A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleGait & Posture
AbbreviationGait Posture
ISSN (print)0966-6362
Orthopedics and Sports Medicine

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